Cengiz Khan (c. 1155 - 1227), regarded as one of the greatest military leaders produced by the world, conquered much of China and Central Asia. India escaped his fury although he came up to the Indus. This Mongolian conqueror was a Shamaist by faith. Timur (1336 - 1405), a Turko- Mongol and one of the flagitious characters known to history, was descended on his mother's side from Cenghiz Khan. His invasion of India, during the declining days of the Tughlaq dynasty is a story of butchery, loot and destruction. During the sack of Delhi he massacred 100, 000 Hindu prisoners. Mahmud of Gahzni, called the "Sword of Islam", led seventeen infamous expeditions to India (1000 - 1027). A perfervid iconoclast, he destroyed numerous temples, including the shrine of Somanatha, and enriched his Afghan capital with the loot brought from India. Malik Kafur, during the reign of Alauddin Khilji, started his Southern adventure in 1307. He went up to Ramesvaram and created havoc, wherever his expedition took him. He returned to Delhi in 1311 with immense booty.
Sthala Puranas are dealt with later in this part. They are essentially histories of places, especially those noted for temples. (They may be called "local Puranas").
"Tazhambu" in Tamil, Ketaki in Sanskrit.
Acyutaraya ruled the Vijayanagara empire between 1530 and 1542.
Krsnadevaraya (1509 - 30 ) was the greatest of the Vijayanagara rulers.
For Tyagara see notes appended to Chapter 1, Part Six.
" Lord of Snakes".
Kandasvami ( Skandasvami) is Subrahmanya.
Sri Somadevasarma passed away in 1973.
See a later paragraph to resolve any apparent contradiction.
For Caitanya, see Notes, Chapter 8, Part Thirteen. Both Nimbarka (13th century) and Vallabhacarya (1479-1531) were Telugu Brahmins. The former settled in Mathura; the later was born in Varanasi.
Tamils know Skanda or Subrahmanya as Muruga or Kanda.
See Chapter 15 of this Part.
Explained later in this discourse.
In Hindi the novel is called "upanyas".
It must be some forty years since Paramaguru made this observation.
Temple of the goddess Draupadi.
Ekaiva murtirbibhide tridha sa
Visnorharastasya Harih kadacid -
- Kumarasambhavam, 7. 44
"Know that the Thirukkural, the four Vedas, the Tevaram, the words of Agastya and Tirukovaiyar, the Tiruvacakam, and the Tirumantiram : teach the One Truth ".
This line occurs in Alexander Pope's "The Universal Prayer ".
Father of all ! in ev'ry age,
In ev'ry clime adored,
By saint, by savage, and by sage,
Jehovah, Jove or Lord !
Suta was a disciple of Vyasa. (Sutas were a half caste and were generally charioteers or actors. )
Naimisaranya, on the banks of the Gomati river, was the hermitage of Saunaka and other sages.
Not perhaps a correct expression for "macerated cowdung. "
Designs drawn on the floor with dry or wet rice powder. Kolam is considered auspicious and is a ritual requirement. The word means "form" or "shape", "beauty", "ornament", "dress".
See notes appended to Chapter 1, Part Three.
Na buddhibhedam janayed ajnanam karmasanginam
Josayet sarva-karmani vidvan yuktah samacaran.
- Bhagavatgita 3. 26
This "sacred hill of the eagles " is in Cengalpattu district, Tamil Nadu.
Taippusam is a festival in honour of Subrahmanya and also Siva in certain places. It is celebrated in January- February. See Chapter 13, Part Six, for how "Tai" and "Pusam" are derived.
"Ksetra-mahatmyam " means glory or greatness or exalted position of a sacred place.
The places mentioned in this para (as also in the previous one) are in Tamil Nadu.
The place associated with the sacred hoof.
Minaksi is Parvati and Sundaresvara is Siva. The two are deities of the famous Madurai temple.
Also known as Mayiladuturai.
The Tamil place names in this story are significant. For instance, "Tirumananjeri " suggests the place where the wedding (of Siva and Parvati) was held, "Kurumulaippali" the place where the palika grains germinated.
Supporters of the Aryan-Dravidian theory - particularly politicians among them - claim that all brahmins, including those in the South are Aryans.
One who liberates the sinner; one who raises up the fallen.
Rama, the liberator; Rama who takes the devotee across from wordly existence or samsara.
The great temples of Brhadisvara, called Periya Koyil in Tamil.
See notes, Chapter 8, Part Five.