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(HinduDharma: Varna Dharma For Universal Well-Being)
These are jatis of the South.
There is a reference to this in Chapter 2, Part Three.
Vidya-vinaya-sampanne Brahmane gavi hastini
Suni cai'va svapake ca panditah samadarsinah
-Bhagavadgita, 5. 18
Caturvarnyam mayasrstam guna-karma-vibhagasah
Tasya kartaram api mam viddhyakartaram avyayam
- Ibid, 4. 13
In other words the Lord's precept is not at variance with his practice.
The equivalent of today's "Plus Two ".
See " A day in the Life of a Brahmin", Chapter 10, Part Nineteen. Here again the Paramaguru is speaking of how the Brahmin's life is ordered according to the sastras.
This is cooked rice kept overnight in water, called "pazhaiyadu" (literally "old") in Tamil.
Yas tvatma-ratir eva syad Atmatrpatas ca manavah
Atmanyeva ca samtustastasya karyam na vidyate.
- Bhagavadgita, 3. 17
Melakarta or janaka ragas are parental scales. The division into 72 basic scales was the work of Venkatamakhi (17th century). The Paramaguru's mother, it may be noted, was a descendant of Govinda Diksita, father of Venkatamakhi. The Diksita was a minister to the Nayaka rulers of Tanjavur and was himself a musicologist. (Janya ragas are derived from the 71 janaka ragas. )
The terms astra and sastra are defined in Chapter 13, Part Seventeen.
This is caused by the death of a relative or a birth in the family. there are elaborate rules governing pollution.
Paricary'atmakam karma Sudrasya'pi svabhavajam
- Bhagavadgita, 18. 44.
Sri Cakravarti Rajagopalacari (Rajaji) became premier of Madras Presidency in July 1927 when provincial autonomy was introduced by the British according to the Government of India Act of 1925. After India became independent in 1947, with the status of a Dominion, he was appointed Governer-General. ("Premier" is the equivalent of the "chief minister" of today. )
This is particularly true of the South and to some extent of Maharastra.
"I am inferior to a dog. . . . " "I, your humble servant, am a dog. "
For a general background, please see here