नमस्सहमानाय निव्याधिन आव्याधिनीनां पतये नमः ।
सहमानाय- To one who subdues enemies, or bears devotees’ faults, निव्याधिने- capable of striking enemies well, आव्याधिनीनां- of armies, capable of facing and striking all, पतये- to Parameswara, the lord of, नमः- prostration.
Like in the second Anuvakam, here in the third Anuvakam also, Parameswara is worshipped as the Supreme Lord in the first eight Yajurmnatras. For the term ‘Aavyaadhininam pataye’ meaning the lord of valorous armies, the two adjectives ‘sahamanaya’ and ‘nivyadhine’ explain the reason. Is it not natural that Parameswara, who subdues and rules over all and strikes the enemies, is the lord of valorous armies? Though he is the head of valorous armies and strikes the enemies, when it comes to his devotees, he ignores their faults and bestows his grace; this is conveyed by the adjective ‘sahamanaya’.
नमः ककुभाय निषङ्गिणे स्तेनानां पतये नमः ।
ककुभाय- the best (among thieves), निषङ्गिणे- holding sword in the hand, स्तेनानाम्- of thieves, who steal stealthily, पतये- to the Lord, नमः- prostration. (स्तेन:- thief, who steals stealthily; तस्कर:- robber, who steals openly.)
Parameswara, the lord of all, is also the lord of thieves. That does not cause any blemish to him. Sri Parameswara pervades the bodies of persons like thieves in the form of Jiva and Easwara. Of them, it is the form of Jivatma of thieves, which is reviled in Sastras. That the all-pervasive Paramatma also pervades the bodies of thieves is what is conveyed through descriptions like ‘Sthenaanam pataye’ etc. The import is that mediation on Parameswara in that manner also leads to accrual of merit.
Alternatively, the import could be that Parameswara, who is kind to devotees, being the lord of thieves also, rids them of their sins and protects them, if they surrender to him.
This should not be interpreted to mean that Parameswara is omnipotent and hence is also the best of thieves and steals others’ property.
नमो निषङ्गिण इषुधिमते तस्कराणां पतये नमः ।
निषङ्गिणे- Holding arrow in hand for stringing in the bow, इषुधिमते- having quiver of arrows, तस्कराणां- of robbers, who steal openly, पतये- to Parameswara, the lord of, नमः- prostration.
In the previous mantra, the term ‘nishanga’ was interpreted to mean sword. Here the term ‘nishanga’ has been interpreted as arrow held in hand for stringing in the bow. Another meaning based on the etymology नितरां+ सङ्गी = तस्मै, very kind to devotees, has also been given. But in the context of तस्कराणां पतये, this meaning does not seem appropriate.
नमो वञ्चते परिवञ्चते स्तायूनां पतये नमः ।
वञ्चते- In the form of one who cheats the master and steals his material sometimes, being his confidante, परिवञ्चते- also in the form of one who cheats the master at all times and in all matters, स्तायूनां- of people associating as confidante and yet stealing without others’ knowledge, पतये- to Parameswara, the lord of, नमः- prostration.
One who comes from outside and steals at night without anybody knowing it is ‘Sthena:’. One who is with the master and yet steals any time, either in day or at night, with nobody knowing it is ‘Sthayu’. वञ्चन्- One who is confidante of the master, but cheats and steals some things at some times. परिवञ्चन्- One who cheats in all matters and at all times.
नमो निचेरवे परिचरायरण्यानां पतये नमः ।
निचेरवे- One who moves about in the master’s house with alertness for stealing things, or, one who moves about in forest along with thieves, परिचराय- one who moves about in marketplace etc. for stealing things, आरण्यानां- of thieves who are in the forests, पतये- to Parameswara, who is lord of, नमः- prostration.
नमः सृकाविभ्यो जिघांसद्भ्यो मुष्णतां पतये नमः ।
सृकाविभ्यः- One who protects himself with equipment, जिघांसद्भ्यः- one who desires to harm animals, मुष्णतां- those who steal grains in fields etc., पतये- to Parameswara, the lord of, नमः- prostration.
One who protects himself with protective gear and desires to harm others can only be the head of thieves. Hence सृकाविभ्यः and जिघांसद्भ्यः are both adjectives to मुष्णतां पतये . As this is Veda, the singular is interpreted as plural.
नमोसिमद्भ्यो नक्तंचरद्भ्यः प्रकृन्तानां पतये नमः ।
असिमद्भ्यः- Those who wield sword, नक्तंचरद्भ्यः- those who move about in night, प्रकृन्तानां- of thieves who kill others and steal their belongings, पतये- to Parameswara, the lord of, नमः- prostration.
नम उष्णीषिणे गिरिचराय कुलुञ्चानां पतये नमः ।
उष्णीषिणे- Those who wear headgear like villagers, गिरिचराय- one who moves about in mountains, कुलुञ्चानां- of those who rob houses, fields etc., पतये- to Parameswara, the lord of, नमः- prostration.
कुलुञ्चानां- Those who rob houses, fields etc. are of two kinds: those who are in villages, wear headgear etc. like villagers and steal houses, fields etc. of the poor; and, those who live in forests etc. and rob houses, fields etc.
नम इषुमद्भ्यो धन्वाविभ्यश्च वो नमः ।
इषुमद्भ्यः - To those who have arrows in hand, धन्वाविभ्यः- those who have bows in hand, वः- to you, नमः- prostration.
In the 21 mantras starting from ‘Namo Hiranyabaahave’ upto the previous mantra (No.8), it was mentioned that Parameswara is the lord of the entire universe. From this mantra onwards, the Rishi describes him as being in the forms of many objects and pays obeisance to him. This establishes the quality of Parameswara being the soul of all. Many of the forms of Parameswara are terrible too. They are now worshipped with expression of obeisance two times, at the beginning and end of the mantra and addressed directly, using ‘va:’ (to you).
नम आतन्वानेभ्यः प्रतिदधानेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।
आतन्वानेभ्यः- To those who string the bow, प्रतिदधानेभ्यः- those who string the arrow to the bow, वः- to you, नमः- prostration.
नम आयच्छद्भ्यो विसृजद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।
आयच्छद्भ्यः- To those who pull the bow-string, विसृजद्भ्यश्च- those who pull and discharge arrows, वः- to you, नमः- prostration.
नमोस्यद्भ्यो विद्ध्यद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।
अस्यद्भ्यः- To those who throw arrows upto the desired aim, विद्ध्यद्भ्यः- those who strike at the desired aim, वः- to you, नमः- prostration.
नम आसीनेभ्यः शयानेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।
आसीनेभ्यः- To those who are sitting, शयानेभ्यश्च- those who are lying down, वः-- to you, नमः- prostration.
नमः स्वपद्भ्यो जाग्रद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।
स्वपद्भ्यः- To those who are sleeping, जाग्रद्भ्यश्च- those who are awake, वः- to you, नमः-
नमस्तिष्ठद्भ्यो धावद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।
तिष्ठद्भ्यः- To those who are standing, धावद्भ्यस्च- those who are running, वः- to you, नमः-
नमस्सभाभ्यस्सभापतिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।
सभाभ्यः- To those who are seated in assemblies, सभापतिभ्यश्च- presidents of those assemblies, वः- to you, नमः- prostration.
नमो अश्वेभ्योश्वपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।
अश्वेभ्यः- To those who are in the form of horses, or, those who do not accumulate material for tomorrow, अश्वपतिभ्यश्च- those who travel on horses, or, wealthy with many horses, वः- to you, नमः- prostration.
This third Anuvakam, consisting of 17 internal mantras is indeed one mantra. Rishi as well as Devata for this mantra is Parameswara himself; Chandas is Brihati.
रूपयौवनसंपन्ना मूर्तेव वनदेवता ।
प्रातर्विबुद्धपद्माभं वसानं चर्म कोमलम् ।
धराकदंबपुञ्जेन नाभिदेशप्रलंबिना ॥
आजङ्घं प्रेक्षणीयेन प्रेक्षणियोपि शत्रुभिः ॥
भूधरस्य च चार्वङ्गी कन्यालङ्कारशोभिता ।
आदर्शमूर्तिः शोभानामन्या नारीव निर्मला ।
तस्या हस्ते धनुर्दत्वा शरमेकं च निर्मलम् ॥
तदीयमंसमालंब्याश्लिष्टं वामेन बाहुना ।
सुगंधिपुष्पस्तबकमाघ्रायाघ्राय पाणिना ॥
वीज्यमानो मन्दमन्दं पनपल्लवशाखया ।
समावृतो बालकैश्च श्वभिश्चापि मनोहरैः ॥
गच्छद्भिरग्रतो दृप्तैः ध्यातव्यो जगतां गुरुः ।
एवंरूपो महातेजा किरातवपुरीश्वरः ॥
One should meditate on Parameswara of the form of a hunter with the following appearance: like a forest Devata, youthful and beautiful; like the tender sprout of white lotus and mango, laden with flowers; wearing peacock-feathers on the head; with face like blemish-free full moon of autumn; wearing dress of skin, smooth like lotus blossomed in the morning; decorated on right and left sides with garlands of white flowers; with even enemies feeling happy on seeing strings of Kadamba flowers hanging from the waist down to ankle; handing a bow and an arrow to a blemish-free, beautiful and model Parvathi, decorated with ornaments; laying his left arm on her shoulder with an embrace; smelling a bouquet of sweet-smelling flowers with the other hand; fanned gently by the branch having the sprout of bread-fruit tree; surrounded by proud and beautiful dogs and boys, going in front. ”
By performing Praajaapatya kruchchram and chanting this mantra 5000 times, one can achieve eradication of contagious diseases spread over the entire kingdom, destruction of evil spirits set upon by others, annihilation of enemies etc.
Translated by: P R Kannan, Navi Mumbai from Commentary in Tamil by
Sri R. MUTHUKRISHNA SASTRI,
Former Editor, Hitabhashini,