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Sri Chidhambhara Mahathya Vedapadhasthavamulu    Chapters   

$ R sV LRi sW RQ

s[ R Fy R xqs s sVV V

 

 

$ bPsNS sVxqsVLiRLkixqss[VR $ sLSry*sVs[ssVM

 

 

$ RsVLRisVRQ

s[RFyRxqsssVVV

($ s[Ryxqs, \sVs, aRPLRi˳gRisyRNRPXRsVVV)

ALiR yRLRi xqszRsVV

ALiR zms xmsLjisLRis yRLRiNRPLRiV:

$ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiVV

($ RsVLRi sVRQsVV)

$ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQ

($ s[RFyR xqsssVVV)

xqsLiFyRNRPVV c xmsNSaRPNRPVV :

$ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV

zqss BLidsLjiLigRiV F~|mnsxqsLRiVc @تsV\ RVWssLji=

RsVLRisVV c RsVyRV

All rights Reserved 1972

s : LRiV. 12

1972 xmsRsVsVVR᪫sVV c 1000 xmsRVV

xqsLRi*ry*sVsVVV xmsNSaRPNRPVs.

$ xqsRyLSRV |msqs,

LSsVLiT c 1.

 

xmsRsV ˳gRisVV

$ RsVLRisWRQ sR FyLSRVsj

R=˳تsLRissVV

RsVLRi LRixxqsxqs*LRiWxmssLRiRVsVV

R=˳؃yRVNRPsLRissVV

$ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjixqsV

$ yxmnsVFyR RsV lLi[aRP*LRi sss xqsssVV

$ bPsNSsVxqsVsLRixtsQNRPsVV

 

$ RsVLRi sWRQsVV

(26 @yRVsVVV)

xmsRsWyRVryhRisVV, sV}aRP*LRisLij xqsLiyRsVV

ZOP[QQRxmsaRPLixqsssVV

sVWLjiQ\s˳sNRPRssVV

bPsgRiLigSdLRisLRissVV

xqsxxqs j*[LiRxmsaRPLixqsssVV

sWRLijs RLjiRsVV

y RLjiRsVV

soxqs RLjiRsVV

yxmnsVFyR RLjiRsVV 

DxmssVsV RLjiRsVV

y᪫ssVzsV NRPRssVV

[syLRiV ss RLjiRsVV

AsLiR sLRisRLRi+ssVV

sV}aRP*LRi ZaP[xtsQxqsLiyRsVV

xmsR RLjiRsVV

xmsR yxmnsVFyR xmsxqsLigRisVV

Ass y᪫s xmsRLRi+ssVV

xmsR yxmnsVFyRVV sLRisVVRVgRiV

x RWgRisXyLiRsVV

zqsLixsLRi RLjiRsVV

zqsLixsLRi sssVV¿[LRiV

zqsLixsLRi zLRisLRiRVgRiV

yxmnsVFyR zLRisLRi xqsLiyRsVV

xqsxxqs sVVdsaRP*LRiVV Ljigji RLiLRisVV¿[LRiV

sVx[R=ssj

LRi][R=s dLRisyssLRisVV

xmnsaRPX

$ xmsR sVVsNRPXR s[aSxtsQNRPsVV

$ s[aSuRLRi aRPRysWs

j*dRV ˳gRisVV

$ s[RFyRsssVVV

$ sLS s[RFyRxqsssVV

xmnsaRPX

$ Ass sLSyssVV

$sVxmsoLRixqsVLiRLki s[RFyR xqsssVV

RsVLRiZOP[QQRsVVs LRiVgRiV xmspV DR=ssVVV

RF~xmsVxmsNRP

 

$ bPsNSsVxqsVsLkixqss[VR $sLSry*sVs[ssVM

xqssVLRi᪫sVV

$ RsVLRisWRQ s[RFyRxqsssVVV @sV xmssRgRis

xqsLixmsosVV $ bPsNSsVxqsVsLkixqss[VR $ sLSry*sVyLji

FyRxmsRsVVLiRV $xmsLkiys xqsLisR=LRi [xtsQ x

RRVLRibdP AjRyLRisVVs $ sWxqsbPsLS xmsLRi*

jssVVs (9c7c1972) xmspxmsoxtsQgRiVR骫sVVgS

suy䪫sV˳NTP][

RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV $sV r˳gRis xqsVOTPQQ

RLixmsRV¿[ xqssVLjiRsVV

$ aRPXLilgi[Lki gRiRVLRiV

$ sVRճss sy dLRi ry*sVVyLRiV

 

JsV

$ aRPXLilgi[Lki $ gRiRVLRiV xqsLiryssV

$

sy

aRPLRi

$ sVRLRisVxLixqs xmsLjiyNSyLRisLRi, xmsRyNRP xmssW FyLSyLRiFyLki, RVsVsRWsWxqssFyظRWsV xmsyLRi ys yLRixqssWRuy WgSsVuyssxtsQ RxmsaRPNRPsLRiQyRsR郫s $aRP LSyLRi gRiVLRiVxmsLRisVLS Fyxms, xtsQRLRi+s ryxmsyyLRi ys zqsLixqsykaRP*LRi, xqsNRPsgRisWgRisVryLRixXRRV, ryLiRRV xmsFyjNRP \sjNRPsWLRi xmssLRiNRP, xqsLRi*RsQxqs*RyQjLSyds sysgRiLRi sV LSyds NRPLSNRPzqsLixqss xmsuyxmsyyLRi $sVyصjLS gRiVLRiV˳WsVؿyLRi, VVxtsQaRPXxmsoLRi sLSkaRP*LRi, RV˳ydLRiyzqs, $sVj*yaRPLRi FyR xmsyLSRNRP $gRiRVLRiV $RsZaP[LRi ˳LRidry*sVgRiVLRiV NRPLRiNRPsVxqsػR

$ gRiRVLRiV

aRPXLilgi[Lki $sVRճss sydLRiry*sVճM ee

@xqsRR szmsRVbPxtsQ $ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV sxtsQ[V yLSRV xqsLRixmspLRi*NRPLi sLRiy bdPAxtsQxqs= sVVsV ee

s[][ z sxqs=s[VuyLi ZaP[RVry=RysgRisWRV xms˳s e sZNP[sLi Rry` ZaP[RVry=Ry sgRisVGs NTPLiRV@kRVsWs xqs=Gs ZaP[RVry=RsyLi xmsxmsR[ e ARR xmsRQORPQLRiLi aRPWRVsWLi xmso sVVyRRVd aSxqsQsyLizqsysM ee

˳gRiys \sVsM xmsoLkiNRPxmsoLRiLi Fyxms ˳gRissLi R=˳[aRPLi s[RxmsRs^M a][Q\ZNPxqsVuysM [xtsvR a][ZNP[xtsv xqsLRi*R @LisVM FyRM s[RLRiWxmsGs ˳sd rRryxqs sVxy*aRPRVM

xmsoLRixqsVsLki s[RFyRxqsssV xqsVNSsLi $sVRLRi ˳gRisyRxmsRLi [ds˳NRPslLi[xtsv xqsVxmsjRsW}qs ee Ryzms xqslLi[*7zqs a][NSM Fyys[xtsv s[RLRiWFyGs ee @sWM rRWM xmshRis[s \sZNP[ [NSM ry*ճztsQy yryRRVs xmsLSLiRXzmsLiR ss[.

GsLi R=˳[aRP R<[RsXyyjNRPLi xXRRV sVRW \ZaPxmsFyRRV` e RsVLRisWRQLi ˳NRP [xqsNRPLRiLi xqs` xmsNSaRP##[ ee R[RQRRVryzms As ˳uy sWyճ[xtsv s[xtsQ*zms sbPxtsQxmsyLSRV AsyRlLi[ xqsx sVVyxms xmsNSaRPRVRV sVVRV؃y ˳ssM s[[FyRxqssWM $ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQ sVV[s, RsVLRisWRQxqs $ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiaRPLRi sVV[s yysVyRLi xqsLiFyR xmsNSaRPRVs ee xqslLi[*{mss[V NTPNRPLi xmsWsLi NTPLiRxmss}msORPQsWM ˳gRisRM NRPXFyLi ZNP[sLi NSLiORPQsWM NSlLi[7zqs sQsXy B[R` sRLSLi xmsaRPLiryL>RisV ee

rysVyRLi gRisRRV sVR sVs[NRP xXuysLRi sRVLi ee xqsNRPVVsWs ˳sRM @R DRV؃y ssWs xqsLS*szms $ aSLRiy RssdaRP*L_ sVxmsLRisVLSճM ssVճ sLRiRVy sVyaSxqs} ee

aRPXgjiLji                                             B yLSRVxqsLRi᪱sV

xmsLkiys, @jNRP \saS

NRPXxtsQRaRPdsV BsVyxqsLRiM $

8c5c1972

$

@xqsRRLiR zmsRVbPxtsvQ\s $ RLS xqsWLRi yLSRVgSLjiNTP yLSRV xqsLRixmspLRi*NSbdPxqsV=V.

sVssVLiRLRisVV s[RsVVsVLiT[V ZaP[RVry=RssVVsV zqsN]sVRVysVV. @LiRsWRs[V NSRV. A s[yRRVssVVNRPWy ZaP[RVry=Rss[Vc A s[RsVLiRV ssRV xmsVVNRP @ORPQLRisVV NRPWR xmsosNRPsVs aSxqsQs[R zqsyLiRsVV.

˳gRisLiRVRgRiV \sVssVxL<ji RsVLRi ZOP[QQRsVVsNRPV s ˳gRisLiRVRgRiV R=˳؃yRVs s[RxmsRsVV][ gRiWTs a][NRPsVV][xqsVLi¿sV.Aa][NRPsVVsRVLiRVsV sLRi FyRsVV s[RLRiWxmssVVgS sVLiRVsV. gSsos CrRsVV y sVxR* xmspLRisVVgRisVsj.

xmsoLRixqsVsLki s[RFyRxqsssVsV }msLRiV][ $sVRLRi ˳gRisyRV¿[ LRiLixmsTs xqsVNSssVV [ds˳NRPVLiRV xmszqsR\sV RVVsj. ArRsVLiRVsV xmsa][NRPsVV VVNRP sLRiFyRsVV s[RLRiWxmssVVgRis[ RVVLiRVsV. C rRsVVsV xmshjiLi @s[NRP˳NRPsVV RsV @ճdxtsQsVVsV, sVLjiRVV RXzmss F~LiRVRVLRiV.

@[ RsVLRiyRVsVVNRPRVV, RsVLRiZOP[QQRsVV VVNRPRVV, sXyyRVsV xXRRVLigRisVLiVVs \ZaP][ xmsFyjLiRV RsVRsWRQsVV ˳NRPsVsVsxqsV=NRPV ARNRPLRi\sV sLSVRVsj. C sVWTLiNTPs ALiR˳xtsQ zqss sVRVLiRVNRPWR xmsyLRisVVs\ZNP ALiRyRLRisVV][ sRV讪s[LiVVLi xmsNSbPLixmssVRVNRPVQ\ s[RFyRxqsssVVNRPV $ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQgSLji¿[RsV, RsVLRi sWRQsVVsNRPV $ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiVgSLji¿[RsV @sVyRsVV ¿[LiVVLi xmsNSbPLixms[zqsLji. dsLRiLiRLRiVsV NTPNRP xmsWssVV s[sWRsVV s}msOTPQLixmsNRP ZNP[ssVV ˳gRisRQXxmss[ N][Lji C xmssRVLiRV xmssXRVQ\ LRisj sVNTP xmsaRPLixqs dsRVsVV.

@sVyRsVV][ gRiWTs C sVWRVgRiLiRsVVsV RW s[VsVV xqsLiRzqsLisyLRi\sV, xqsNRPVVLiVLiVVs RsVLjis, sVLjiRVV dsNSLRisVLiRV xqsxNRPLjiLis yLjisLiRძsV $ aSLRiy RLiRsdaRP*LRiVV sVLigRixmsLRiLixmsLRi][ @ճsLjiLixms [RVVRVLRiVgSNRP RVs RWbdPLRi*jLiRVRVysVV.

aRPXLilgi[Lji                                             B yLSRVxqsLRi᪱sV

xmsLkiys @jNRP\saSx

RaRPsV rsVyLRisVV $

8c5c1972

AsVV sWbdPLRi*RsLiR

$sV[ gRi[aSRV sVLi

$sV[ R=˳[aRP*LSRV sVLi ˳sRV ee

aRPVճ xqsxqsWճM xqsQXճ aRP RyxmsoLSss \|aRP xaRPM xmsxmsR sVRLi RsVLRiLi xqsLRi*[NRP sRsV.

[ZNP[ ysRQzqsRLi RR` ZOP[QQR sWRQR R`QZOP[QQR sWRQ gRis[xtsv xy xmsFyR[e @xqs RsVLRi ZOP[QQRxqs sWRQxqs aRPV xqsQX xmsoLS[}qsRLRi ZOP[QQRsWRQgRis sVsQaSxqsQsVW˳Wy NSaRP##\˳LRis NRPjճM xճ LRiQ^sLRixaRPM xmsFyRsWsy*`e @xqs RsVLRiZOP[QQRxqs xqsLRi*QZOP[QQ][ RsVR*xqs s[FyLiVV Ry*`, (1) xqsWRxqsLizyRWLi (2) xqs sW[ (3) AjsoLRi sW[Q(4) \ZaPQ\sNSRaRPLRiVRxqsLi zyRWLi (5) ˳LRiy*xqsLizyRWLi (6) xmsoLkiNRP sW[Q, ByjgRis[xtsv R xqssVN`P xmsFyRsWs y*R yzqs xmsosLjiydsLi sNRPyaRPLi[aRPM e

R¿[RLi RsVLRisWRQLi RsVLRixmsoLSxqs xms ˳gSRNRPxqs xmsRsVLi NRPVxqsVsVsV. BRLi 26 @yRVxmnsVRsV. 1444 1/2 a][N][}msRLiR aRPyjNRP xqsLisR=LSRWLRi*Li gRisFyLi, As FyLiR sVVjRLi RVuyQxqs sVVjaRP, yyyR (17c18) ZNP[sLi sVWsWRLi [sygRiLjiFyLi, AsFyLi y[}msRLiR xmsNSaRP##ZNP[s @s[s sVVyxms xmsNSbPf e @ssLRiLi ˳NSyLi xqsWlgi[s, BRLiR sVRQLi [sygRiLjiFyLi 1971 Rs[V RVs[ sVVyxms xmsNSbPRsV e RjR sVRVy AsFy sWs[xmsNSLSRV, As˳uyyRL][}msRLi, xqssVgRi sVsRsryRV sVs}msORPQQ $sLSsVWL_, @ryxqsVR, ˳NTPsaS*r xqsLi˳تs, g][ysLkidLRisLji, LSsV}ssLRisgRiLSճs[s, @ysV\ saRP*syRV zqss BLidsLjiLigRiV F~|mnsxqsLRiV $ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV aRPLRi xqsLixmsNSaRP[ e s[RFyRssM $\sVsNRPXRM $ s[aRPrRLRiWxmsM, Ry $ aRPLRi ˳gRisyRNRPXRM $ xmsoLRixqsVsLki s[RFyRxqssaRP sWRQLi yzqss xqsLiWf e

˳NRP[xmsNSLRiLi NRPXRs[ xmsNSaRPNSRW \|qs#, RRLRixms\QQQ, $sV\Q xqsVZOPQQR @RVVLSL][gSճsXjM e xqsLRi*xqsLixmsR=sVXjM, xqsLRi*sVتyzmsM, @R sxtsQxms ˳NTPzqsjM ؃s \sLSgRi zqsjaRP ˳WRWj $sLSLSLi xqsLiFyLSQaSxqs} e

Ry As˳uyyRLRiNRPLRiQX˳Li x$ $FyR s[LiNRP[aRP*LRiaSzqsQ[, x$ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳ aSzqsQ[, xmsoxqsNRPxmsNSaRP##s[ xqsxWgRiLi NRPXRs[ x${msxqsVFy xqsWLRixmsNSaRPaSzqsQ[ R $sV` }sV xqs˳؃yRM RsVLRi sVsM bPsNSsVsV[aRP [RWsxqss򼽪sV, ؃s\sLSgRizqsjLi R, ARVVLSL][gRixqssVRLi, syLRiQxmsysLi R [RW` ss[aRP*LRiM e $˳gRisd xqsLRi*[[Rs[V, [sy ryLRi*˳ݮs[V, @Li N][ yRVZNP[ xsyxqs*LRiWxms$bPsNSsVsVsLkixqsy[ Assy᪫sLS[, @ds˳NTPLi xqsLi˳تs RRQXxmsRW ZNP[s sVRLi yRLRiLi suy䪫sVsRW NRPXR sVճdssdsRVLi.

a][ ee g][LRiOTPQLRiRLi ˳Vs\sNRPLRiR e

sVVsWy Rss ˳gRiLRiRLi e

s[aRPLRiRLi xqsVLRi}qssLRiRLie

ssWsV RLi kOTPQRsLiaRPLRiRLi ee

a][ ee g][LRiOTPQs sX[aRP xmsRVLRiOUPQLRi yRW e

bP][ sWRXxqssOUPQLRi sVxms˳Li R*RW NRPXRsVee

BRLi $jss[aRP RLRiLRisyLSRsRRLRiM RsVLRiLi aSryQyLRixmsRLS rsV ZaP[LRikOTPQRM RsVLRiLi $sLS[yRVsLS*xNRPM xqsVxXR=˳ryxmsNRPaRP e

xmsLkiys \saS 13 aRPVNRP RRVLRibdP saS sORPQQRLi $g_Lki sV[s NRP᪫sVx[R=sjsLi aRPVNRPyLRi 26c5c1972.

$ R=˳[aRPM aRPV˳sWR[RV.

 

$M

$ RLiR sdaRP*LS

$sVRLRisVxLixqs xmsLjiy NSyLRisLRi

$sVRLiNRPLRi ˳gRisyRxmsztsQR

$NSLid NSsVN][ {mshSjxms gRiRVLRiV

$sVRs ZaP[lLi[s xqsLRixqs*d

$Fyy[aSsVrylLi[ $sV[Vs

xqsLRixqs*d $Fy\M

RsVlLi[ @تsV\ saRP*syRV BLidsLjiLigRiV NRPaSظRWLi @yxmsNRP xmsRdsLi @juyRV sLRiRxqs $ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV aRPLRi[ sxtsQ[V NTPRV[ yLSRVxqsQXM

"RLRi+yR˳xqsRzqs" "RsVLRiZOP[QQRsVV RLji+LiRV¿[Rs[ sWORPQsVVsRV胫sV" @s xmszqsjsLijs RsVLRi ZOP[QQRsVVVVNRP sWRQsVVsV V dsV xmsNRPLis gRiLiRsVVsV yxqsLi][ztsQLiysVV. @LiRV s[RFyRxqsssVVV $sLS bPsNSsVxqsVsLki xqsxxqsysV rRsVVV $xqsVx[aRP*LRi rRLRiRsVVV sVVRgRiV yss xqsLiNRPssVV¿[zqs sVVjLizmsLi xmsNSaRPsVV ¿[zqss dsV NRPXztsQ ss AsLiR˳LjiRVLiVVyLRisVV.

BVsLi xqsRLiRsVVsV xmsNRPLiRVRV xqsRQsX RVLiRVs dsVLRiV $ xmsoLRixqsVsLki xqsz $Rs sdaRP*LRi xmsryR FyRVLiVV xqsV؃s sVLiRsss AbPLiRVRVyLRisVV.

RWyryssV

sRVyR

AsLiR c sWxmnsV B yLSRVxqsQXM

xmspLjidsV rsV

yxqsLRi iM

26c2c1975

JsV

Dr. c.s. venkateswran , M.A.PhD.,

professor and Head of the Department of Sanscrit

Annamalai University

Annamalai Nagar

3-5-1972

A bdP xqsV=

"xmsL][xmsNSLRiRV xqsyLi s˳WRRV" "GNRPM ry*RVs˳VR" BR @zqs @ճRVVNSy sVVNTPM e xqsVxqs sVWLi sVsxqsM aSsM e aSs ryRsrysVlgi[xtsv gRiLkiRV{qs ˳NTPM e ˳gRisRLjiRxqsLRi[s, RrRxmshRis[sR ˳NTP LRisLRi[ e D˳RVsVzms @sVXRs` sVRVLRiLi ry*RV R ˳s e @RGs @sVXRR*NS\sVM sV\lLiQQM RRV˳RV sVsaRP sWry*R dsRVLiR e Ryry*Rs[ DxmsNRPVLRi*sM sWsLi NRPRNRPXy ظRVs e

RR* sVRLi sVszqs syRV @تsV\ saRP*syRV yxqsVsys˳lgi[ FyyLRixmsR sVxtsQjM NRPVd\sM AzqsNRPs\lLiM $RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV᪫sVaRP##\VM ˳gRisRM DsWxms[M . sWRQxmsLRiLi RLjiRLi rRLiR [sygRiLki FyLi sVVjRLi rysVQRLi rysVyR sWs˳uyRWLi RFyLiR xmsNSaRP[ R[bdPRWysVVxmsNSLSRV e RR xmsRsVLi xtsQT*LiaRPRyRVRVVRLi RsVLRisWRQsV eRsVLRiZOP[QQ[ $sLSry sssysxqslLi[ jsxtsQyLi xqsRzqs sVxL<ji \sVsy sLRiRLi, ryLRiaRPRa][NRPxqssVRLi s[RFyRxqsyLi e rRLRiRLi j*dRVLi Ra][RLRi aRPRa][NRP RVVNRPLi ˳NTPsVxqsXLi xmsoLRixqsVsLkis[RFyRrRLi $aRPLSyLRixmsRLi RXdRVLi R sRV[ e

@sVy[ sWLRiRLRi+NSM LiNRP sLiNRPLSsVaSzqsQ rsVRWsWaRPRWM yylLi[ sxmsoLi sLRiW*RssM $FyRs[LiNRP[aRP*LRiaSzqsQsVx[RRWM e N] @ssxmsRy˳aSzqsQaRP xqsLRi*y @ճssdsRWzqs, AyLSsVgRix sVssVQ ˳NTPxmspLRi* s[VyRXaRPNSlLi[xtsv xmssXyyLi xqsNRPVLiVsWyLi RLRixqsWLRiyLSRV sVaRPRWyLi aRPy˳NTPxqsVxqssVRM DRL][RLRisVճsLRiysV B $ bPsNSsVxqsVsLkixqss[VRLi $bPssLSLi FyLRiRWsVM e

GsLi @ysV\saRP*syRV xqsLixqsQXR s˳gSRQORPQMs[aRP*LRiaRPLSc

C. S. Venkateswaran

JsV

LiNRP sLiNRPLSsVaSzqsQ rsVRW

ryLigRis[yLRixqssW, @ճsyxmsxqsLi

AbdPxqsV=

$ sLSRVssVM

xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVRV xmsxmsLiRsVV[s FyuyRV sVRLjiLiRVNRPV @NRPRR szqs RsRLRi+ssVVsV ¿[RVVyLji sVRLjiLiRVRVyRV a][ ee @g_ [ j*ؼdyLi Wgji yLi xXRV Ry e xmssWxqs* VkyLiee @sV sRssVV ssVxqsLjiLi FyFyRVV ss[NRP؃ssVV [syLRiV.ARW[sRsV RLji+Li RLjiLiRVRVyLRiV. BVLiR ROTPQ᮵[aRPsVLiRV xqsVxmszqsRsVgRiV jsQZOP[QQRsVgRiV RLiLRiZOP[QQRsVLiR sLS[aRP*LRiry*sVyLji RLjiR (sWRQsVV) ryLiRxmsoLS᪫sVV[ sVsj. A sWRQsVVsV x$ RLSxqsWLRi yLSRVgSLRiV. y NSsVVsVLiT AZOP[QQRsVLiRV @ysV\ RVWss=[ zqss BLidsL`i F~|mnsxqsL`i gS xmss ¿[RVVRV zqsszqsLiRVss yLjiNTP sZaP[xtsQsVVgS yLji xqsdsV r˳gRis xqsVOTPQQgSLjiNTP $sLSry*sVyLjiRVLiRVs @xmsLjisVR˳NTP¿[ RLiLRi sWRQsVVsV VgRiVyRLRisVV][ @RV讪s[LiVVLis ALiRVLiRLRiV RLjiLiRVNRPV ryRssVgRiVss R x$ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiV (Lji\LRiV xqsLixqsQXRxmsLiTRVV, LSsVLiT) gSLji¿[ VgRiV yRLRisVVsV yLiVVLi @RV讪s[LiVVLiLji. BLiRV[ s[RFyRxqsssVV (\sVssVxL<ji LRiRsVV) sV $ aRPLiNRPLRi˳gRisyRNRPXRsVgRiV xmsoLjixqsVLiRLki FyRxqsssVVsVNRPWR x$ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳ aSzqsQgSLji¿[ yRLRisVVsV yLiVVLi NRPWLji " RLiLRi sWRQ s[RFyxqsssVVV" @s }msLRiV|msLji. BLi[NSNRP yFyRsVxL<ji ¿[LRiLiRTs R=[aRP*LRi sLiRs xqsssVVsV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLRixtsQNRPsVVsV xmsRsVxL<ji sLRiRsVgRiV $ s[aSxtsQNRPsVVsV VgRiVyRLRisVV][ @RV讪s[LiVVLi IZNP[ gRiLiRsVVgS NRPWLjiLji. dsNTP yRLRisVVsV yzqs yLRiVyNRPV RWzmsLiLji. ys ysLRiNRPV s[sV RWysV. sVW؃sVryLRisVVgSs[ xqsxtsQsVVgS yRVTss. CxmsoxqsNRPsVV xqsLixqsQXR˳xtsQLSs xmsALiRVsNRPV ALiR˳xtsQsV zqsN]ss xmssWssosNRPV DxmsWgjiLiRVssV[ FsLiRsWRsVV xqsLijRVsVV [RV. C xmsoxqsNRPsVVsV @RV s[LiVVLis RLS xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLRiV RWLRiVg][ysLji @sVxmsoLRisVVsNRPV xqsLjixRV gSsVsVgRiV BLiRVxms gSsVyxqsVgRiV RLS ZaP[xtsQRVgSLjiNRPVsWLRiVV. ZaP[xtsQRV gSLRiV LSsVsVLiRsVVsV xqsy zmsLiRVRV LSsWsVgRixsVVsV F~Lij INRP NSLjiNRPaRPV^NSRbPyRV 1928 xqsLiee N][s{qssV[s gRiLigRiNRPVLRiV gSsVsVLiR DRLRiyzsRVgRiV N_bPNRPsjRVLiRV ryssVV¿[zqs gSsVsVV[sNTPsRVRV sWLRisVRsVLiRV LSsVysVxqsLRi᪫sVVsV ¿[RVVRV aRPLkiLRiygRisVVsV ¿[zqsLji. yLjis s[sV gRiVgS FsLRiVgRiVRVsV. yLji RxmsMxmnssVV dsLRiV. dsLji˳LRi ree xqsVOTPQQgSLRiVNRPWy dsLji NRPsVNRPWsVgRiV ryk*sV. sVVsVVgS CgRiLiR sVVR sVLiRV AsVFy=x sVNRPV䪫sgSsVsj. BLi[VNSNRP dsLjiNTPLiNRPsV B gRiLiRxmsyLRisVVsV ¿[RVV RVLiRճxtsQ NRPRV. C gRiLiRsVVV dsLjiNTP xmsoRrydsRVsVV\ dsxmsyLRisVVss C RLixmsRVNRPV HzNSsVVztsQNRPxqsVsVVsV gRigjiLi xqsVLixms¿[RVVNRPVsV, C gRiLiRsVVNRPV, VgRiVyRLRisVV yzqs x$ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiVgSLjiNTP x$ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQ gSLjiNTP ARVVLSL][\lgiQQaRP*LSճ sXjs¿[RVVRV BLiNRPsV @s[NRPgRiLiRsVVNRPV yRLRisVVsV yRVVNRPV aRPNTPsRVNRPVsV $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLkixqszR $ sLS[aRP*LRiry*sV yLjis FyLjiLiRVRVy*sV.

s[RVsWLRiV                                LiNRP sLiNRPLSsVaSzqsQ rsVRW

RWeeg][ee.                             ryLigRi s[yLRirysW 7@ճsyxmsxqsLi

8c6c1972

JsV

lLisV xqsWLRixmsNSaRP aSzqsQ

s[yLRixqssW, dsVsWLirysyxmsds

$g_RdsVsy{mshRi xqsLixqsQXRNRPaSصRQORPQM

LSsVLiT c 1

A bdP LRi* R s sV

"xqsVLi s[V ˳WRW` RVMLi s[V sW˳W`" @s xqsLRi*FyVV xqsVsVVNSsssRVV, RVMsVV sRsRVV N][LRiVRVLiRVLRiV. xqsVFyzms RVMxmsLjiLRisVVNRPV s[RaSxqsQsVVRVLiRV @jNSLRi yLRiRsVsVV ssVxqsLjiLi @s[N][FyRVsVVV [jLixmsTss. "sLji*؃yLi ؃sWg][ yzqsysVxNRPLRisV s sLji*[ ysxqsN][ ˳NTP򹸅Wg][ 7xqszqsjRM" @s $sVygRisRsVLiRV @jNSLji ˳[RsVVssVxqsLjiLi sVR sWjNSLRiVNRPV ˳NTP򹸅WgRisVV DRsVxmsoLRiVuyLRi ryRssVs ¿xmsTsj. C ˳NTP򹸅WgRisVV xqsL][*FyRVsVV[ @RsxqsV˳[FyRVsVs $ @yRLSsWRV᪫sVVs "NRPLRiWg][ ؃sWg][˳NTP򹸅WgRiR aSaRP*RM e [uyLiRVaRPxqsV˳[sWL][ ˳NTP򹸅WgRi xqsV=xmspRM e @s ¿xmsTsj. ˳NTP򹸅WgRi sVsgS xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVsVVNRP NRPyaRPsصjsss][FyRVsVV yaRPLiVVLiRV. @LiRV xmsLRis[VaRP*LRi rRLRiWFFyRVsVV yaRPLiVVLiRV. @LiRV xmsLRis[VaRP*LRi rRLRiWFFyRVsVV yaRPLiVVLiRV yRV \sjNRPsVLiVVs RVRWgSRVVVNRP xmnssVVsV LiRgRiRs, "WػR sVxqssVx][ sVzy`, }qsRVaRPQ+[ճLRiVLi R˳xqs`" @sV aRPV xqsxtsQsVVgS FyjLiRVRVsj. C xmsNSLRisVV s[RaSxqsQsVV¿[ sVNTP DRsVsVLiVVs xmsoLRiVuyLRi ryRssVVgS sLjiLixmsRVRVs ˳NTP򹸅WgRisVVVVNRP RR*sVVsV gRiVgS gRiVLjiLisyLRiV $ RLS xqsVOUPQQ xqsWLRiyLSRV RLixmsRVV. dsLRiV ROTPQNSbdP RVsRVRVs $ g_RdsVskdLRisVVsgRi LS}LiRsLRixmsoLRiy xqssoV xmsxqsVRsVV @ysV\ saRP*syRVsVV[ zqss BLidsLjiLigRiV F~|mnsxqsLRiVgS RVVLiTLji. $ dsLjiRLixmsRVV xqsVxmszqsRsVgRiV jsQZOP[QQRsVLiVVs RLiLRisVLiRV sszqsLiRVRV $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLkixqss[VR sLSry*sV yLjiRVLiRV sVNTP aRPy˳NTPRVVNRPRVQ\ yLRiVRLjiLiRV[VgSNRP ALiR˳uyճLRiVsV RLjiLixms[RVV\ZNP DRVQQNRPLiVVLji; gRisVNRPs[ $ \sVs, aRPLiNRPLRi˳gRisyRV¿[ LRiLixmsTs, sVsVzsW}msRsVLiVVs s[RFyRxqsssVVsV, RLiLRiZOP[QQRsWRQsVVsV $$FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiVgSLji¿[RsV, bdP N] @ssxmsRy˳aSzqsQgSLji¿[RsV RNRPgS ALiR˳xtsQ[ yRLRisVVsV yLiVVLi NTPNRPxmsWssVV s}msOTPQLixmsNRP xmsLRis[VaRP*LSLRiLRiVj][ B NSLRisVVsV sLRi*zLiRV\ZNP xqsLiNRPLiLji. BLiRV s[RFyR xqsssVVRVLiRV bP \sVs aRPLiNRPLRi˳gRisyRVV xmsa][NRPsVVVVNRP @ssV˳gRisVVs ryOSQRV s[RyNRPsVVs[ FyRLRiWxmssVVsVgS NRPWLRiVss gRiLiRsVVV s[RFyR xqsssVVs ssxLjiLixmsRV[V gSNRP bP aSzqsQgSLRiV dsNTP VgRiVyRLRisVVsV yRVV xqsLiRLRi骫sVV[ xmsNRPXRsVVs s[RyNSLRiWsNTP y][ xqsLixmsjLiRgS gRiLiRsVV ysVWgRisVVgS RWRV ˳gRisVV yNRPVs NRPgjisj. bP aSzqsQsLRiV¿[ ALiR˳xtsQ xqsV˳##\ZaP[ @sVsjLixmsTs, RLiLRisWRQs[RFyRxqsssVVsRV C gRiLiRLSsVV ALiR˳uyճLiRLjiNUP DxmsWgRixmsRVssV[ FsLiRsWRsVV @aRPWNTP[RV. B xqsLRi*syLRiNRPsVLiVVs RLRiNSLRisVVsV sLRi*zLiRVNRPV WsN]ss $ xqsVOUPQQ xqsVLRiyLSRV RLixmsRVsV bP bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki xqszR sLS[aRP*LRiry*sV B][jNRPsVVgS xqsNRP ZaP[W7sXRVsV B LRiOTPQLiRVgSNRP RVs y RWbPLRi*RssVV.

23c6c1972                              lLi[sV xqsWLRixmsNSaRPaSzqsQ

 

JsV

g][y xqsVx aSzqsQ

VVlgi[*R˳xtsQxmsLkiOSQjNSLji, yRVs[y sy*s

(\sVxqsWLRiV)

$g_RdsV sy{mshRi xqsLixqsQXRNRPaS

LSsVLiT c 1

A bdP xqsV=

RLSLRiNSsVsWORPQsVVsV yVgRiVxmsoLRiVuyLRisVV[ sWORPQsVV xmsLRisVxmsoLRiVuyLRisVV. ksNTP ؃ss[V ryRs\sVssV @؃ssVVsV NRPL][Fyxqss¿[ xqsLiFyjLiRsRVVsV. DFyxqsy sWLRisVVs[ ˳NTPsWLRisVsVLiRVLRiV. ds[ NRPLRiV RaRPVjs, ˳NTPRVsgS DFyxqss^QNSgRiRsV xqsLiFyjLi ؃ssVVsNRPV ryRssVVgRiVRVssgSs NRPLRiNRPLi ˳NTP @LiRLRiLigRiryRssVgRiVRVsj. @ ˳NTPsWLRisVV[ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSry*sVVsV LRiNSsVVgS }qssLiRVRVs ˳NRPsLRiVgRiV @تsV\ RVWssLji=[ zqss BLidsLjiLigRiVaS[ yxqsVs˳gRisVVsNRPV @RQORPVgRiV x$ RLSxqsWLRi yLSRVgSLRiV, yLjixqsdsV $sV ree xqsVOTPQQgSLji }msLRi¿[ s[RFyRxqsssVVsV (\sVs s[RFyRxqsssVV xmsoLRixqsVLiRLki s[RFyRxqsssVV) zmsxmsLjisLRissVV ALiR yRLRisVV][ ALiRsVsV sVx[xmsNSLRisVVN]LRiNRPV yLiVVLi sVVjRsVVgSsLi ˳gRisR=sVLRi᪫sVV ¿[RVsRVVssV xqsyLRisVVsNRPV xmspsVN]sLji. C NSLRisVV s[R˳gRisVV][ NRPWTRVVLiR¿[ NRPxtsQryRQ\sVsj. kss $ g_RdsVsy{mshRiLi xqsLixqsQXRNRPصRQORPVgSsVLiT saSsdxqsVN]s $ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQgSLRiV sLRi*zLiRVNRPV xmspsLji. ksjs[sV AsVWgRisVVgSRWs. @RR sOTPQxmsVgSsVs s[RFyRsVVsV xmsNRPXysVgRiV᪫sVVgS xqssVs*RVsVV¿[zqs RNRP yRLRisVVsV y aRPsV dxqsVNRP1s $ aSzqsQgSLRiV LRiLiLji. kssRW yNRPV y AsLiRsVV NRPgjisj. BVsLi sVNSLRisVVsV ¿[LiVVLis $ xqsWLRiyLSRV RLixmsRVNRPV $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki xqss[VR sLSry*sV ARVVLSL][\lgiQQaRP*LSj xqsNRP˳VRRV sZaP[RVxqssVVsV IxqsLigji LRiOTPQLiRVgSNRP RVsRVV RWAjRLixmsRVsV FyLjiLiRVRVysV B yRLRisVVsV LRiLis $ @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQgSLjiNTP AxmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVRV RRVLji*RxmsoLRiVuyLRisVV sRVgSNRPRVs RWxmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs FyLjiLiRVRVysV.

24c6c1972                                         g][y xqsVxaSzqsQ

 

s zms

RsVLRisVV (xmsoLiRLkiNRPxmsoLRisVV) ˳LRiR[aRPsVVs xqsVxmszqsR xmsoQZOP[QQRsVV. xmsLiR˳WRsVV[ NRP\s @NSaRPsVWLjiNTP ZOP[QQRsVV. BNRPR FsxmsVRV $bPsNSsV sVsLki xqss[VR $ sLSry*sV jsQ\sVs AsLiRy᪫s RLRi+ssVV ˳NRPVNRPV xmsryjLiRVsV.

xqssVxqs xmsxmsLiRsVVsV xmsNSbPLixms[RVV [xqs*LRiWxms dsVxXRRV xmsoLiRLkiNRPsVV[ sVsj. RsVLRisVV xmsxmsLiRsVLiRNTP xXRRVxmsoLiRLkiNRPsVV sLij. aRPLkiLRiyLjiRVgRiV yRRVLiRV CaRP*LRiVRV aRPVRsVLiVVs ANSLRisVV][ ryOTPQgS sVLiRV[, @[ xmsxmsLiRsVsV [xsVVsNRPV xXRRVxmsoLiRLkiNRPsVLiVVs C RsVLRiZOP[QQRsVVs $sLS bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLji][ ryOTPQgSsVLiT xqssVxqs xmsxmsLiRsVVsV xmsNSbPLixms[RVVsV. $sLS[ s[Rxqs*LRiWxmsoRV, ؃sxqs*LRiWxmsoRV. Axqs*LRiWxmss[V yNSaRPsVV [NRP RsVLRisVV. ˳NTP][ R=˳[aRP*LRiVs yLSjLiRV¿[ xqsLRi*˳RV صy syLRi᪫sVLiVV, sWssos sRsVLiRRVV sWRs \¿RssVV gRi\ AsLiRsRVsVgRiVsV. ˳NTP򹸅[V sWssosNRPV aRPLRisVV. "sVVNTP ryRs rysVgSQLi ˳NTPlLi[s gRiLkiRVzqs".

$ bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLki sLS NRPXxms¿[ RsVLRi ZOP[QQRsVVssVs @تsV\ saRP*syRVsVVs 22 xqsLisR=LRisVVV BLidsLjiLigRiV NS[[ F~|mnsxqsLRiVgS syLRiVNRPV FyhRisVVV¿xmsV @sNSaRPsVV sVLjiRVV C FyLRi*dxmsLRis[VaRP*LRiV RLRi+s˳gRisVVV ճLiss. RsVLRiZOP[QQR sVzsVsV ALiR rRLkirRLRiVNRPV VxmssRVVss xqsLiNRPsVV NRPgjisj. ˳NRPVLSLiVVs y˳LRi $sV xqsVOTPQQ }mslLi[xms Fy=xsVV y xqsLiNRPsVVsNRPV sVV ¿[NRPWLji胫ss. sWNRPVsV, sVLjiRVV ARsVsVLiRLjiNTP xqsV˳sVVgS RVVsV yRLRixqszRsVVgS "$ RsVLRi sVRQ s[RFyRxqsssVVV" @sV xmsoxqsNRPsVVsV y {qs*RVRssVV][ sVVjLi $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSNRPV xqssVLjiLiRsRVVss xqsLiNRPs. ksss sW ˳NTPs |msLiF~LijLiRVN]sVNRPVsV, FyLRi*dxmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVsV xqsLRi*NSsVVLiRV xqsLjiLiRV ˳gRisVV ¿[NRPWLRiVNRPVsV, sVLjiRVV sVVNTP F~LiRVNRPV C ˳NTP sWLRis[V ZaP[xtsQsVsRVV ][sj.

y xqsLiNRPsVVsV, ysVRVV, ZaP[WճxtsvV, xqsRVxqsLixmssVV, CaRP*LRi˳NRPVV ${msxqsFy xqsWLRixmsNSaRPLi gSLjiNTP (BsNRPsV NRPV= FyNUPxtsQsLRiV, LSsVLiT) RV¿[zqsysV. yLkisxtsQRVsVV[ ˳NTPaRPRV RWzms sVxmsLiTRVgRiV $ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiVgSLji][sV, $N] @sLiRxmsRy˳ aSzqsQ gSLji][sV xmsLjiRRVsVV ¿[zqs yLRiV˳RVVV C NSLRisVVsV sLRi*zLiRVNRPV xqssVLRiVs ¿zms yLji }qsx˳gRisVV NRPVgRi¿[zqsLji. N][LjisLiRs[ dsLRiV˳RVVV sVsLiRsVV][sV CaRP*LRi˳NTP][sV C xmsoxqsNRPsVVsV N]j jssVV[ zmsxmsLjisLRissVV yRLRisVV yzqs LiVVLji.

$ sLiNRP[aRP*LRiV gSLRiV, $ @sLiR xmsRy˳aSzqsQ gSLRiV, @gRiZaP[NTP ¿[Ljis g]xms xqsLixqsQXyLiRxmsLiTRVV. Bj $ sLS[aRP*LRiVs xmssR NSLRisVgRiV¿[ dsLRiV saSLi dzqsN]sVRVssV, y aRPsVN][Lji ˳NTPaRPR][ LRiRs xmspLji¿[zqsyLRiV. dsLRiV yRLRisVVsV sVXRVsVRVLRisVLiVVs \ZaP][ xqsVNRPVsWLRisVRVNRPV NRPWR [RxmsRVsV yzqs, ALiRsVsVNRPV aSaRP*RsVgRiV g]xms}qss ¿[zqsyLRiV. dsLRiV suy䪫sVsVV][sV, ry*LRiLRizRsVLiVVs RsVV][sV @RLiR˳NTP][sV ¿[zqss NRPXztsQ xmnsRs[V C xmssRgRiLiRsVV. dsLjiNTP y NRPXRR Vxmso Fs[ RVNRPVsj.

C xmsoxqsNRPsVV[s xmsRsV˳gRisVV[ $ yxmnsVFyR sVxL<ji yzqss RsVlLi[aRP*LRi sss xqsssVV, bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLRixtsQNRPsVV, 26 @yRVsVVV gRi RsVLRisVRQsVV, xmsR sVxL<ji yzqss s[aSxtsQNRPsVV gRiso. sVVRsVV xqsVsWLRiV 1500 a][NRPsVVV. C˳gRisVVsNRPV ALiR˳uy yRLRiNRPLRiV $ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiVgSLRiV. BjsLRi[ 1970 xqsLisR=LRisVVs xmsRVLjiLixmsTs $sLS AsLiRy᪫sRLRi+ssVsV sxmsoxqsNRPsVVsNRPV zmsxmsLjisLRissVV yRLRisVV $ sLiNRP[aRP*LRiV gSLRiV yzqss sxtsQRVsVV FyhRiNRPVNRPV RVVsV. dsLji ˳NTP aRPRV, JzmsNRP NSLRikORPQ, FyLiTRsVV xmsaRPLixqsdsRVsVV. $ sLiNRPsVOUPQQ xqss[VR $ sLiNRP[aRP*LRiV gSLjiNTP y NRPXRyճsLiRssVVV xqssVLjiLiRVRV yLjiNRPVVLisVV[s @LiRLjis $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSV xqsLRi*aRPV˳sVVsV xmsryjLiRVgSNRP @s FyLjiLiRVRVysV.

C gRiLiRsVV[s j*dRV˳gRisVV $ s[RFyRxqsssVVNRPV sVVRsVV 275 a][NRPsVVNRPV $ N] @sLiRxmsRy˳aSzqsQ gSLRiV ALiR˳uyssLRiNRPLRiV. dsLRiV yNRPXztsQ¿[zqs, s[RFyRsVVNRPV xqsslLi[aRPsVV¿[zqs xqsVLiRLRi\sVs yRLRisVV yzqsLji. dsLji˳NTP, NSLRikORPQ FyLiTRsVV y xmsaRPLixqsdsRVsVV. $ LiNSLRisVxqss[VR $ @sLiR xmsRy˳aSzqsQ gSLjiNTP yLji NRPVVLisVVsNRPV $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSV xqsLRi*ZaP[RVsVVV xmsryjLiRVgSNRP @s FyLjiLiRVRV y NRPXRyxmspLRi*NRP sLiRssVVV VxmsoRVysV.

C xqsLisR=LRisVV s[V s 6c9 [kV s[sV y˳LRi xmssR aRPXLilgi[Lji ZOP[QQRsVV[ DLiT $ $ $ aRPXLigRigjiLji aSLRiy {mshSjxmsRVV gRiRVLRiVsoV $ sVRss sydLRi ˳gRisyRV yLjis RLji+Li C xmsoxqsNRPsVVsV yLjiNTP RW|msT ˳gRisVV NRPgjisj. $yLji xmsoxqsNRPsVVsV gRiVgS xmsLjibdPLi y xqsLi][ztsQLi, ¿[zqss NRPXztsQs xmsaRPLizqsLi $yLji $sVVsVV, AbdPxqsV=V, xmsryRsVVV sVLiyORPQRV sVLjiRVV yLji Fn[NRPVsV B sVsVVssVgRizLi NRPXyLRiVsV ¿[zqsyLRiV. $yLji $sVVsVV AbdPxqsV=V, sV˳gRisVVV. $yLji }mssV ARLRi, AxqsNTP aRPVsbPRxms yg]xmss. $yLjiNTP sW xXRRVxmspLRi*NRP ryuyLigRixmsتsVsVVsV ˳NTP][ VxmsoN]sV RVysVV.

RsVLRi ZOP[QQRsVVs xqsVxmszqsR xqsLixqsQXR xmsLiTRVV, $sLS [yRV xmsLjiFyNRP xmspNRPVV, sWNRPV kOTPQRVV @LiVVs aSryQyLRi, xmsLiTRLS, rsVZaP[LRi kOTPQRVVgSLRiV, yLji xmsoRVRV RRVaS+xqsQbPL][sV $rsV}qsRV kOTPQRVVgSLRiV C gRiLiRsVVsV RRWLRiV¿[RVV[ |msNRPV xqs sWLRiRLRi+NRPV\ yNUP˳NTP sWLRisVV RWzmssLiRVNRPV, sVLjiRVV yLji @sVVbPLS*RsVVNRPV yNRPXRyxmspLRi*NRP ssVxqsQXRVV xqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

@تsV\ saRP*syRVsVVs xqsLixqsQXR s˳gRisVVsVVsNRPV @gRiryssVV szLis yNRPV LRiNSsVRVLiVVs F~|mnsxqsLRiV. zqs.RVqs. sLiNRP[aRP*LRisgSLRiV C gRiLiRsVVsV RW y xqs xmsaRPLizqsLi AbdPxqsV=sV xmsryjLiLji.

s[RVsWLRiV yxqssoV, @s[NRP RVRWgSRVV ¿[zqss sVxdsRVVV "ryLigRis[RLRirysW, @ճss @xmsxqsLi" Byj LRiVyLiNRPXRVVsgRiV $LiNRP sLiNRPLSsVaSxqsQ rsVRW xmnsVyFyhki gSLRiV CxmsoxqsNRPsVV FyLRiLiճLisj sVVRV y Fy=xsVV, xqss xqsLi[xsVVsV dLji sWLRiRLRi+NRPV\ yLji @ճFyRVsVV AbdPxqsV=V ByLRiV.

dsVsWLixqssyxmsds ryLigRis[yLRi xqssW, @ճss syLRi sVVRgRiV LRiVRV¿[ NUPLjiLixmsRV $ lLi[sV xqsWLRixmsNSaRPaSzqsQgSLRiV |msNRPVxqs ][RT AbdPLRi*jLiyLRiV.

ryLigRiVVlgi[*RsuyRVVsV, yNRPLRiRLRi s[yLiR aSxqsQsVV[ @gRiZaP[NRPV ¿Lijs xmsLiTRVVsV g_RdsV sy{mshRi xqsLixqsQXR NRPaSRVLiRV yRVs[yyyLRiVVsV @gRiV $ g][y xqsVxaSzqsQgSLRiV s[RFyRxqsssVVV yRVV[ s[RyNSLRi sLRiRVsVVsLiRV xqsLixmspLRi xqsNSLRisVVsLji RsV AbdPxqsV= syLRiV.

xqsLRi*sRsVV sWNRPV xqs xqsLixmspLRixqsxNSLRisVV RRV][ ybdPLRi*jLis \|ms sVxdsRVVLiRLjiNUP NRPXRyxmspLRi*NRPsVVgS ssVxqsQXRVV xqssVLjiLiRVRVysV. $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki $ sLSV dsLRiLiRLjiNTP xqsLRi*ZaP[RVsVVV xmsryjLiRVgSNRP @s yFyLRis.

$ {msxqsVFy xqsWLRixmsNSaRPLigSLRiV xNSLRi ssVgRiVQQ\ DLiTRVV C xmsoxqsNRPsVVR NSLRisVLiRV xqsLixmspLRi xqsxNSLRisV ¿[zqss sVNRPXztsQ xmnsRs[V s[ gRiLiLSsVV. dsLjiNTP y NRPXRR VxmsoNRPV Fs[ RVNRPVsj? $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLRi sLSV $ xqsWLRixmsNSaRPLigSLjis yLjiNRPVVLisVVsV AbdPLRi*jLi yLjiNTP xqsLRi*sVLigRisVVV xmsryjLiRVgSNRP.

C gRiLiRsVV[ sVVjLis N]s $ bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLki sLSry*sVyLji Fn[NRPV NRPVV B xqsRVxmsTs $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki NRPVLi˳ճ}tsQNRPsVV NRPsVyLjiNTP sVLjiRVV $ RLRixmsoLRiLi @kssVVyLjiNTP y NRPXRyxmspLRi*NRP sLiRssVVV.

CxmsoxqsNRPsVVsV xqsNSsVV[ aRPRdzqsN]s RNRPgS sVVR¿[zqs B胫s $ xqsRyLSRV|msxqsV= RVsWsV\s $NRPWxqsVxmspT sLiNRPتsogSLjiNTP, yLji xmssyLjiNTP y @ճsLiRssVVV.

C xmsoxqsNRPsVV[ GsR\sVs F~LRiFyV RxmsVV DssV yss FyhRiNRPVV sVsLi RVxmsLRis, NRPXRs][ {qs*NRPLjiLi BLiN]NRP xmsRVLRi[ xqsLjijRVN]LiRVsV.

C "RsVLRi sWRQ s[RFyRxqsssVVV" $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSNRPV ˳NTP][ sssVVR\s xqssVLjiLiRVN]sVRVysV. CxmssR gRiLiRsVVsV yRVLiRV NRPXxmszms, xmsLjixmspLSsVgRixsVV][ {qs*NRPLjiLixmsosVs s[RVN]sVRVysV. CNRPXztsQ[ xqsRVxmsTs yLjisLiRLji AbdPLRi*jLi yLjiNTP aRPV˳sVVV xmsryjLixmsosVs FyLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee aRPLRixqs RLjiyNRPysVXRLi RLiRZaP[LRi gRiV؃sV NUPLRissVe

dsNRPLihRi! RsFyR}qsssLi, xqsLi˳sLiRV sVsV s ss ee

@syaRPLRiLi yzqsR*s[Vs aRPLRiLi sVsVe

Rry` NSLRiV ˳خs[s LRiORPQLRiORPQ sV}aRP*LRiee

@xmsLSRxqsxry NTPRVs[7xLji aRPLisVRW e

yr7RVsV sWLi sVy*QORPQsVxqs* xmsLRis[VaRP*LRi ee

@تsV\ sgRiLRisVV RLS xqsWLRiVyLSRV F.I.E.

RsVyRV (xqsLiFyRNRPVVcxmsNSaRPNRPVV)

9c71972 zqss BLidsLjiLigRiV F~|mnsxqsLRiV

@تsV RVWssLji=

 

gRiVLRiVLRiQ gRiVLRiVsxtsvM gRiVLRiVlLi[[ sV}aRP*LRiM e

gRiVLRiVry=QOSQ RLRiLiR\|qs# $gRiVLRis[ssVM ee

$ gRiRVLRiV $sVRճss sydLRisVry*sVyLRiV,

$ RLS xqsWLRiVyLSRV, xqsVOTPQQ RLixmsRVV,

aRPXLilgi[Lji. 8c5c1972

 

xmsLjiRRVsVV

a][ee yxmsLRiLi bPsgRiظRWM

dLRiLi, rysLi RsVLS` e

Rs yyxmsL][ sVsQM

yzqs [[ s[aRP*LS` e

Ry[NSxmsoz xmnsLi

yLRi\|qs#s RORPVxtsQM ee

RsVLRisW[Q 24 @y.

Fy᪫sWRsVV N][LRiVsj xqsVsVV. xmsLRisVxqsVFyzmsNTP ؃ssVV, NRPLRi, ˳NTPRVs sVWRV ryRssVVV. ؃ssVVsNRPV ryRsRRVxtsQRVxqsLixmssV[ @L>RiVRV. NRPLRi NRPxtsQRLRisVV, xRsryRsVV. NRPsVNRP \|mssVWRV ryRssVV[ ˳NTP DRsVsVV, xqsV˳sVV. ˳NTPNTP sVsVxtsQsWRVRV [NRP Fy᪫sWRsVjNSLji. ˳NTPRVsgS CaRP*LRiVsRVLiRV gSR\sVs }mssVRVsRVV "ryR*zqs9 xmsLRisV}mssVLRiWFy" ˳gRisRVaRPsصRV¿[ sVsxqsV=NRPLRigji yLRigS xmsszLi ˳gRisyNSLRisVVsV LiRVRVsRVV"RVRxqs ˳gRisRLSLSLSyzNRPyLi gRiye xqslLi[*}tsQ sVsr sXLRiQQNTPLjiR ճkRV[ee" ¿zmsLji. ˳gRisRV sZaP[xtsQ sLRisLRiWxms\sVs gRiLiRsVVsV xmshjiLiRV¿[RsV, ssV¿[RsV ˳NTP ճLiRVsV. xmsoLS᪫sVV[ ˳gRisRV᪫sLRissVV, RRNRPV RLjiRV sssgRiVsV.

C RLiLRisWRQsVV ryLiRxmsoLS᪫sVV[sj. Bj BLRiVsjRWLRiyRVsVV gRiLiRsVV. ks[ RLiLRisVVVVNRP g]xmsRssVV, bPsgRiLigRisVzsV, NRPLRiVتsVRVV\s xmsLRisVbPsoRV yxmnsVFyR xmsRLiV ssVgRizLi RWsLiRyLiRssVVsV xmso, [NRPsVVsVgRiWR @sVgRizLiRV, sXzqsLixsLRisV zLRisLRigS [RVV A xmsLRisV ˳NRPVRgRiV zLRisLRi @R [yRWRVsV, x gRiXxsVVsV g]RsgS[zqs sLSry*sV NRPVR=ssVV s[LSV¿[RVV sVVRgRiV sxtsQRVsVVV gRiso.

RLiLRisVV s[RsVLiRVsV xqsWRxqsLizyRVRVLiRVsV zqsR\sVsj. CaRP*LRisLjiR\sVs @LRiVsj FsssVj sVVNTPQZOP[QQRsVV[ sj xqsL][*RQ\sVsj. NSbdP[ sVLRiLiRVsssV, @LRiVؿRsVVsV xqsLjiLiRVsssV, RLiLRisVVs yLiRssVWLjis RWRVsssV sVVNTP ճLiRVsV. dss[ ss sVLRi yssVVV RVLRi˳sVVV. sVNTP xqsV˳##\sVsj RLRi+ssVV, NRPsVNRP RLiLRisVV ys[ sVRsVsVV. xmsLiR˳WRsVV LigRisVVVgRi ZOP[QQRsVVVgRiso. NSLidxmsoLRisVVs xmsXk*gRiLigRisVV, LiVZNP[aRP*LRisVVs LigRisVV. @LRiVؿRsVVs [[LigRisVV, NSxzqsRVLiRV yRVVLigRisVV, RLiLRisVVs ANSaRPLigRisVV. C HRV ZOP[QQRsVV[ @sNRPLi xqsV˳sVVgS RLRi+ssWRsVV¿[Rs[ sVVNTPsRV DRsVZOP[QQRsVV RLiLRisVV.

BR sVRxmsxqsV= ¿[zqss yxmnsVFyR xmsRLiVNRPV xmsLRisVbPsoRV FyLRi*][ s NRPsNRPxqs˳[ AsLiRyLiRssVVsV zms [NRPsVLiR RVsVgRixsVV¿[ sLiRLRiNRPVsV yLiRssVVsVzms RLjiLixms[RV sR zqsLRisVVgS sszqsLi¿sV. sLS }qss\ZNP ˳WsV[sVs GNSs[VaRP*LRi, xqsVLiRlLi[aRP*LSj [sRLiRLRiV sRsVV LS RLiLRisVVsNRPV s¿RLRi xmsLRisVbPsoRV xmsLiRNRPXRxmsLSRVVRVgRiy! sLS LRiWxms sWRRV¿[RVV HRVxmssVsV VxmsosLiRVLRiV. RsVLRiVNRPsVV xqsXztsQs, @˳RVxxqssVV zqss, @gjigRi xxqssVV xqsLiLRisVVsV, zqsLRiFyRsVV L][yssVVsV, NRPVLiRFyRsVV @sVgRixsVVsV xqsWLiRVsV. CsLSكsV}qssLi yxqsVRV, xqsWRVRV \sVs, sVVRgRiV VVxtsv[gSNRP sWLRisVV[ xxRV ¿[zqs RssVxmsxLjiLis xmso䃫sVRV sVVRgRiV sV FyFyRVVNRPWR RLjiLiLji. zqsLixLRiWxmssVVs V RVMLi LSsVVsVsR RLiLRisVVsNRPV s胫s zqsLixsLRiRVsV LS sLSٹVVNRP @sVgRixsVV¿[ bPsgRiLigRi[ ryssVV¿[zqs zqsLixLRiWxmssVV ]gRi LigSLRisVVsLi NSLi][ zLRisLRi RVVsV. @R[ ]VR [yRVsVVsV @RsVWRV s[sVLij xV gRiXxsVVsV gRiV¿[LiVVLi DR=ssVV s[LRiLRisyRV.

CsRsVVs ˳NRPV RLjiRV, sLS sVzsVRVV ds RLiLRisWRQsVVs gRiVgS ssLjiLixmsTss. C gRiLiRsVVsV Rjs, ss ˳NTP][ RLiLRisVV[s sLSكsV }qssLisyLji NSRRV ؃sRXztsQ xqsgRiVsV. ys][ yLRiV "xqs\lLiQQ*LRiVsVVORPVճlLi[QRVM, aRPsVVLSNSaRPsVRgRiM" @sV sRsVVs xXRRVxmsoLiRLkiNRPsVRsVVssVs RxLSNSaRPsVV[s yLiRsVWLjis }qssLi xmsLRisVxqsVLRiWxms\sVs sWORPQsVVsV F~LiRgRiLRiV. C RLiLRisWRQ sVVxms[bPLiRV xmsys sxtsQRVsVj RVsRgRiVsV. RVRNUP RLiLRisWRQsVVsV sRsVV FyLSRV¿[zqsssV NRPsVsVVgS RLjiLixmsgRiLRiV.

CgRiLiRsVVsV VgRiVzms[ yRLRisVV][ yRVVNRPV FR=zLi @RV讪s[LiVVLisyLRiV @تsV\ saRP*syRVsVVs zqss BLidsLjiLig`i s˳gRisVV[ F~|mnsxqsLRiVgSsVs $ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLRiV, ryLiRxmsoLS᪫sVV RVLRi˳sVgRiV¿[ yLRiV sVVR gRiLiRORPQLji[ yRVTs RLiLRisVRQsVVsVLiT 17. 18 @yRVsVVsV RLiLRisVV[s aSryQyLRi, xmsLiTRLS $ rsVZaP[LRi kOTPQRVyLji¿[ ygRiLkizms[ yLiVVLi @RV s[LiVVLiLji. zmssV dsLji RLRixms r˳gRisRVV sgRiV $ xqsVOTPQQgSLji }msLRi¿[ yxmsoxqsNRPsVVsV VgRiVzms[ yRLRisVV][ yLiVVLi @RV讪s[LiVVLiLji. RLRiVyR RLiLRisVV[s xqsVxXR=˳ sVLiT BLRiVsjRWLRiyRVsVV RLiLRisWRQsVV xqsLixmspLRiQgRiLiRsVV [sygRiLkizms[ sVsRgRis[ $ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLRiV VgRiVyLRiLiRLjiNTPgRiWR xqsLixmspLRiQgRiLiRsVV sLiR[RVsssV xqsR=LiNRPsVV][ ygRiLiRsVVsV yNRPVxmsLizms yRLRisVV][ VgRiVzms[ yRVsVs FR=zLiLji. sZaP[xtsQٲRsV NSNRPVssV yLRiV ssV FR=zLiRVNRPV NSLRi᪫sVV AgRiRLRiVgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVsLki sLS NUPsRVV LSs sWV ss RWsLijLixmssssV N][LjiNRP VVNRPRVs yNRPV ˳zqsLiRVRVsj. RRLiRVRgRiLRi VR sWV xmsVNRPNRPV xqsLi[zLixmsNRP Dy=xxmsRVsVgRiy! AgRiRLRiV {msN]LRiNUP gRiLiRsVVsV yzqss. @ٲRsgRiV¿[ yRLRisVV yRVV[ dsgRiLiRsVVs N]s ][xtsQsVVV sRVVLiRsRV胫sV. sV sVsLi yss zmss][ bPLRiryszLiRVsV.

CgRiLiRsVVsV y ˳gRisVVs xqsLjiRW ][xtsQsVVsV xqssLjiLi yZNPLiRRVV xqsRVsVV¿[zqss sWLRiV[s xqsLixqsQXRNRPصyxmsNRPVgRiV $sWs ZNP[.RVqs. LSsWsVؿyLRiVVgSLjiNTPs, LSsV}LiRsLRisVVs g_RdsV sy{mshRixqs xqsLixqsQXRNRPaSRVLiRV ˳WRxmspLS*RQORPVgRiV $ N] @sLiR xmsRy˳aSxqsVQVgSLjiNTPs s[sV NRPXRRsV VxmsoRVLis.

C gRiLiRsVVsV yRVVNRPV ssV }mslLi[zmsLis xmso RLixmsRVV $ xqsVOUPQQ xqsWLRiyLSRVV NSbPsNSsV xqsVLiRLki sLS ճdxtsQsVV xqslgiRLRiVgSNRP.

sVsVV ybdPLRi*jLi NRPXxmszmss gRiRVLRiVsoV aRPXgjiLji{mshSjxmsRVV sgRiV $ sVRճsssydLRi ˳gRisyRVNRPV y ryuyLigRi RLiRxmsتsVsVV LjiLiRVRVysVV.

BdsxqsV}ms BV

LSsV}LiRsLRisVVc2 $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiV

16c6c1972 Lji\LRiV xqsLixqsQXR xmsLiTRVV

xms˳VR NRPaS

JsV

DFyRsVV

GNRPLSbPgSsVs s[RxqssVWxsVVsV VVgSj˳[RsVV¿[ yxqs (s˳gRi) sVVsLRiV¿[ ryRs[RVVRV s[RyxqsVRsV ss*LRiysV[RVVRVsV. A sVxL<ji @uyRaRPxmsoLS᪫sVVsV, DxmsxmsoLS᪫sVVsV, DxmssxtsQyyLRisVVgS xxqsWRsVVsV, xqsL][*xmssxtsQy=LRisVgRiV ˳gRiskRsV LRiLi, sVsNRPV xmsryjLiyRV. VVztsQRVs xsVsRVV sLRisVV. x[RNRPsVgRiV¿[ \sjNRP sVRsVVsNRPV AL<RisVRsRVV xms gRisj.

$ s[RyxqsVyLRiV LRiLis ryLiRxmsoLS᪫sVV[ sLiRLRiRsVV RLiLRisWRQsVV . sLSVLRiVxtsvs LRiWxmssVV[s xmsLiRsV˳WRsVV[ xmsys ˳WRsVgRiV ANSaRPsVWLjiNTP xqssVV RLiLRiZOP[QQRsVV. xmsoxtsQdsV sORPQQRRVVNRP FLRisW{qsjssVVs sLSry*sV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki xmsLSaRPNTPgRiWT AsLiR yLiRysVXRsVVsV sVxL<RiVV, zqsRVV, gRiLiRLRi*V, [sRV sVVsgRiV ˳NRPsLRiVNRPV xmsryjLiRVsV.

yOTPQػR˳NRPNRPsxmsLiTRVV LiRLRiZOP[QQR sVxR*sVVsV xsRsVVVgS ssLjiLiLji. yLjiyNRPsVV RVVLRisVVsV sF~LiRVxmsRVsV.

@LiVVRV ˳WRsVV[ yNSaRP##s[V xmsyssVV. NSsos ANSaRP xmsyssVLiVVs LiVWZOP[QQRsVV @sNRPs xmsaRPxqssVV. (1) LRiVyLigSRV @sVZOP[QQRsVV LRiRxqs˳, (2) sVRVLRi sLiTxqs˳, (3) LRiVs[* ysVxqs˳, (4) LRiVNRPVLisVV Rxqs˳, (5) RLiLRisVV NRPsNRPxqs˳RVV @s xmszqsRsVVV, C\VRV xqs˳[ xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVRV xmsLRis[VaRP*Lji][ gRiWT ss sVVsLRiVRVLiRVsV.

CysVV[ xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs xmsLiRNRPXRsVVV y˳LigjisVsVVss sQQNRPsVgRiVRVLiRVsV. RsVLRiVNRPsVVs ¿[][ xqsXztsQ, @˳RVxxqssVV¿[zqs Fss ¿[][ xqsLiLRisVV, ysVV¿[RVV FyRsVV¿[ @sVgRixsVV, sVL]NRPFyRsVV¿[ L][yssVVsV xqsWRsVVV. Bj xqsWRLiLRisVV,

aRPLkiLSLiRLRiRsVLiVVsj xqsWORPQQRLiLRisVV. ˳WyNSaRPsVV [NRP LiVVRLRi ˳WRsVV zqsVV][ @[ xXRRVxqsLiRssVV[NRP sVgjis RVsRVssVVV xmss¿[RVso. NRPsVNRP xXRRVsVVsV yNSaRPsVVgS ¿xmsVRVLRiV. ˳gRisLiRVs ryssVV yNSaRPsVV. ˳gRisLiRVs sssVVVVNRP xmsR*s[V sVs xXRRV xqsLiRssVV. BR. xqsVxtsvsV , zmsLigRi, RVsV sVWRV yRVV sVsaRPLkiLRisVV[gRiso. @LiRV xqsVxtsvsV sVRyT, ys[ 6 RNRPsVVV gRiso. lLiLi[zqs RNRPsVVV gRizqs VVNRPgRiLijgS sVLiRVsV. sVWصyLRiRNRPsVVsVR NRPVNRPLiRsVsV LiRVsos NRP |msVN]s NRPVLiRdsaRPNTP RVVLiRVsV. sVWصyLRisVV xqsVxtsvsW yTNTP sVWryssVV 4 RsVVVgRij. xxmsxmsLiRsVVssj NRPsVxmsoLRisVV @sV LRiVyLRiWL`i gS sVsj ry*juyssVV 6 gRisVVV gRij. Bj xxmsxmsLiRsVVs LiVZNP[aRP*LRisVVgS xmszqsjgSLisj, Bj aRPLkiLRisVV[ LigRixms[aRPsVV ryssVVgSgRij. ClLiLiNTP \|mss xgRiLijNRPRV. ClLiLiRVRNRPsVV\|mss sVxmspLRiRNRPsVV gRiRV. @j 10 RsVV][ sLSVsV. Bj xxmsxmsLiRsVVs @LRiVؿRZOP[QQRsVV. sVxmspLRi RNRPsVV\|mss 12 RaRPsVVVgRi @ryxRRNRPsVVgRiRV. Bj aRPLkiLRisVV[ xXRRV ZOP[QQRsVVsgRiRV. kss xqsLisR䪫sVsVsRVV, xmspLRigjiLji {mshRisVsRVV xqsVLiRVLRiV. kss 12 xqsWLRiVV xqsLixmspLRi NSLi][ xmsNSbPLixms[RVVRVLRiV. C RNRPsVV xxmsxmsLiRsVVs RLiLRisVV. ks\|ms gRiLij sxtsvgRiLijM ksNTP \|mss 16 RsVVVgRi saRPVRRNRPsVV sVs NRPLihRiryssVVs sVsj. Bj yRVVryssVV. Bj NSxzqsgS ¿xmsRVRVsj. ks\|mss j*RsVV AؿRNRPsVV ˳WsVRsVLiRVsj. Bj x xmsxmsLiRsVVs NSbdPZOP[QQRsVV. ks\|mss LRiVRgRiLij RVVLiRVsV. ks\|mss xqsxxqsRsVVVgRigji *LiRV xqsxryLRiRNRPsVV gRiRV. ksNTP RLiRsVLiRsVsRVV, y*RaSLiRsVsRVV, xLRiLiRsVsRVV ysVsVVVgRiso. kss xsVVs \ZNPxqssVLiRVLRiV.

aRPLkiLRisVV[ sVRryssVgRiV xXRRVs[V yNSaRPsVV. Bj[V RLiLRisVV. Bj[V xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs yryssVV. ksss RLiLRisVV xqsWLRiWxmssVV. RxLSNSaRPsVV xqsWORPQQLRiWxmssVV c @s xmsLRisryssVV.

xmsoxtsQdsV sORPQQRRVVNRP FLRisW{qsjssVVs R=˳RVLiRV xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVRV ˳NRPVNRPV xmsryjLiRV AsLiRyLiRysVXRsVVsV RssdLRi yry*jLiRVNRPV sVxL<ji zqsRgRiLiRLRi* [syRVV sLkiOTPQLiRVLRiV.

\sVs sVxL<ji @gji ZNP[aSjbPxtsQxqss[VRV\ [s gRiLiRLS*j xqsLi}qssRsVLiVVs R=˳##ZNP[Li¿sV. @R xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs ysVVsV RWLRisVVsVLiT[V gSLi ryuyLigRi xmsتsV sVVslLi胫sV. sLS ysVVsV FyLRi+Q*sVV sVLiT NTPLiRV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sV[ssgSLi xqsLi][xtsQsVV][ xmssVsV. \sVs xmsLRisVbPsos RVsVgRixsVVs s[yLiR ryLRisVVsV xqsLixmspLRisVVgS yNRPLiRVN]s ˳NTP][ ][zqs NRP LiVWRVRV RsVsVLiVVs s[RFyyLiRxqsssVVsV LRiLi¿sV. Bj \sVs sVxL<ji NRPLRiQXNRPsVgRiV¿[ \sVs s[RFyRxqsssVVgS xmszqsj gSLi¿sV.

$ s[RyxqsV yLjiNTP sVgRiVLRiV bPxtsvV \|msVRV \sVs, \saRPLiFyRVsVRV, xqsVsVLiRVRV. \sVs sVxL<ji yxqsbPxtsv[ xmsysVRV. xqsLRi* s[yLRiryLRi xqsLixmssVRgRiV dssVxL<ji rysVs[RaSdRVVRgRiV sVRVRs RVLiRVLRiV. CRVs xmspLRi* dsVyLiryaSxqsQxmssLRiNRPVRV s[RsVV[s xmspLRi*˳gRisVV NRPLRi[RNRPsVV s[yLRi sLSRVNRPsVVgRiV sRVsVsVV ssVxqsLjiLi s[yLRisVVsV sLRiLiVVLixmsssV. y*RaSyRV xmsLjisVRsVgRiV xmspLRi*dsVsWLiryxqsWRsVV ds\sVs sVxL<ji LRiLi¿sV.

[NRPsVVs ˳NRPVgRiVNRPso s[NRPsRsVVVgS sbPxtsQ˳NTP ˳تysVXR xmsLjixmsoRsVLiVVs RsV NRPsyxqsVyxmspLRisVV¿[ xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs RXzmsgSsLi, NRPXyLRiVLiVVs yLRiVgRiLRiV. yLji xqssLRiRsVVVsV |msNRPV gRiso. gSszmsRVVRgRiV xmsLRisWRsV yRx[FyxqsNRPVLiVVs ygRiLSصj ˳NRPslLi[VV LSgRiyxqsLixmsoRsVgRiV RsV gSssWRVLki ˳LjiR xqsVyճ}tsQNRPsVVs RsLiVVLi RsVLiVVsyLRiVsV gRiLRiV. yLji yLji LRiRsV xqsVxmszqsRsVV\ [NRPsVVs yzmsLiRVVss. NSs LiVW\sVs NRPXR xqsssVVsNRPV ysNRPs sbPxtsQRNRPRV. xmsa][NSLiRFyRsVV s[RyNRPLRiWxmssVgRiVRVV xqssVxqss[Rs[yLigRi ryLRi xqs*LRiWFyճٲRV, ryOSQ[*Ryxqs bPxtsQ xqsRsVVRgRiV \sVssVxL<ji sVVLRisLiRxqs=QXR sVNRPLRiLiRsVgRiV kssWRVLRisVV FyaRPxqsQsVV ¿xmsVRVysaRPNRPsVV.

B[ xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs][ ssy˳؄ssRVgRiV $sVQ xmsoLRixqsVLiRLjiVVNRP s[RFyRxqsssVV. kss LRiLisyLRiV ryOSQRLiNRPLSsyLRisVLiVV, @\Q*R xmsrysRRV LRiRLiVVRVsV, RRQsLRiNRPVVsV, BLiNRPsV ss[NRP xmsNRPLRiصj gRiLiRsVV s\Q*RxmsLRisVVgS LRiLi, RsV RVLiR xms˳؄sZaP[xtsQsVV¿[ sRLRisVR sLRixqssxmspLRi*NRPsVVgS xqsLRi*s[yLiRsVVNRPV s\Q*R sVLi[ xmsLRisVyRLRisVs aRPVRVVNTP xmssW᪫sVV][ sLRiLiVVLi sVsNRPV xmsryjLis aRPLiNRPLRi˳gRisyRVgRiV ksFyaRPxqsQsVVsV s[[ ¿xmss[!

CxqsssVVV lLiLiRVsV sRFyLSRV᮪sVVsLji RLjiLiRVNRPV xqsLRi*y DxmsRVVNRPsVVV.

s[RsVV xqsLRi*RLRisVVNRPVsV sVWsVV. @s s[RORPQQORPQ᪫sVV: BxtsQFyzms, @sxtsQxmsLjiLRisVVNRPV, @NTPN][FyRV [RNRPsVgRiVss s[RsVV "@NTPNRP ZaP[RVry=Rsy[RN][s[RM" sVLjiRVV "RVxqssaRP*zqsRLis[yM" @sV xqsWNTP¿[ xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs sVVsVVsVLiT saS*xqssVVs sxmsRVRsVVgRi sVsTsss ¿xmsV¿[R ss RVFLRiV}tsQRVsVVsRVV, sRsVVsRVV sLSLjiR\sVsj. sVLjiRVV s[RM Fy¿[Rryy{qsy=QOSQysWRVػRy" @sRVV "˳LRiRLi xmsLiRsW s[RM" @sRVV LSsWRV sV˳LRiRsVVV s[RRLRisVVsV xmsys yRLRisVV][ [jLiRV¿[ ysRVLiRV s[RR*sWg][zmsRsVgRiV¿[ s[R\sbPxtsQsVV xsVVsVVgS [jLixmsRVRVsj.

@ s[RyNRPsVV FyyssVVgRi xqsssVVgRiV¿[ ss sRFyLSRV᪫sVVss s[RFyLSRV xmnssVVsV FyzmsLixms[RVVRVss. dssRVLRisVVsV zqsN]s xmshjiLis][ xmnsصjNRPsVV xqsVxqsxtsQs[VNRPy. "RV[ssyRWNRPL][R[s dsLRisRLRiLi˳s" @s aSxqsQsVV. ClLiLiRV s[RFyRxqsssVVVsV xqsLixqsQXR˳xtsQ[ sVss. xqsLixqsQXR˳uyxqsLiryLRisVV gRiyLjiZNP[ RVsgSxsVVV. ALiRsrysWssVV xmshjiLi RLjiLiRVNRPV ssNSaRPsVVsV NRPLixmssss zmsxmsLjisLRissVV. ALiR˳xtsQ[ yRLRisVV yLiVVLi xmsNRPLixmssRVVssV xmssyaRPRVsVV][ @ysV\ saRP*syRVsVV[ zqss BLidsLjiLigRiVaS[ yxqsVs˳gRisVVs NRPRQORPVVgSsVs x$ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLRiV yLji RLRixms, ryk*sV, bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSصj sVRLixmsRVRVLiRV xmsLRisV˳NTPتsxqssVs*R $sV, r˳gRis, xqsVOTPQQgSLji }msLRi¿[ dsxqsyLRisVVsNRPV xmspsVN]sLji. "bPsaRP+NSRVVN][RVj˳saRPNRPM xms˳sRVLi" @sgRiy $ sVRLiNRPLRi˳gRisyRxqsWNTP.

NSFyxmssVRVVsV xqsyLRisLRi*xᵳRVLkiVVsV, ˳gRisRNRPVVsV, xqsxXRRVVVsgRiV @TL`i x$ {msxqsFy xqsWLRixmsNSaRPsVVgSLji y*LRisVVs dss[RFyRR*RWLiRyRLRiLRiRs ¿[RVszqssRs yNRPV RV[zqsLji. s[yLRigRiLiRsVV[s s[sV s[RFyRxqsssVV NRPLRisVVyRVV RVs LiNTPs. saRPLiVVLis. NSs $ xqsWLRixmsNSaRPsVVgSLji RVLiR g_LRissVRVN]sj. xqsyLRisVVNRPy! s[RsysuyRV ryRVsVVsVkzqsN]s LiVWNSLRisVV sLRi*zLixms[sW! @s \LRisVV][ dsNSLRisVVsNRPV xmspss. y WzmssNRPj |msRryRVsVVsV xqsLixmspLRisVVgS gRizLi, LiVWlLiLiRV xmsoxqsNRPsVVNRPVsV yRLRisVV yzqss.

s[RsVV[ yRWs[R˳gRisVVxqsLiRLRi骫sVVV ճs ճssVVVgSsVLiRVsV. C rRsVV[ \|mssVWRV FyRsVV RVLRisVV][ xqssVs*RsVgRiVsV ¿[RVV N]LiRNRPxtsQRLRisVgRiV sxtsQRVsVV. FsLiRsLRiNRPV sLRi*zLixmsgRigji[! "AxmsLji][uyj*RVuyLi sryRV sVs[ xmsWgRis؃ssV" @sV NSyxqssVNRPs xqsWNTPs sVsxqsV[ sVsssVV¿[zqsN]sVRVysV.

F~|mnsxqsLRiV RLS xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLji N][LjiNRP¿[ ryLiRxmsoLSLiRLRiRsVgRiV 26 @yRVxmsLjisVRxqsLixqsQXR sLSsWRQsVVsV xmsLiTRsLRiVV x$ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRi aSzqsQgSLRiV zmsxmsLjisLRissVV yRLRisVVsV RNRPs sVXRVsVRVLRi\ZaP[ VgRiV˳xtsQ[ xqsLS*LigRixqsVLiRLRisVVgS LRiLiLji. ysNRPsVLiRsVVgS y LRiRsRVgRiV dsxqssR*RVsVVsV gRizms [VNRPxqsLixmsosVVgS [zqs sVVR᪫sVV ¿[LiVVLiLji.

s[RFyRxqss yRLRiLRiRsNRPV, s[yFyyLRi ssLRi᪫sVV\|ms FyRsVVRVLRi xqssVs*RVsVV s[RFyyxmsyLRisLRiRWRV[ yNRPRLiRsVV ryRVsVV¿[zqss xmsLiTRsLRiVV. ryLigRis[yLRixqssW. @ճsyxmsxqsLi x$ LiNRP sLiNRPLSsVaSzqsQ rsVRWVgSLRiV ryLigRis[yLRixqssW. s[RLRi˳xqsLRi, dsVsWLirysyxmsds $ g_RdsV sy {mshRixqsLixqsQXRNRPaS zmss=FyV x$ lLi[sV xqsWLRixmsNSaRPaSzqsQ gSLRiV.

VVlgi[*R˳xtsQxmsLkiOSQjNSLji. yRVs[yLiR yNRPLRiaSxqsQ suy*RVVsV, xmsxqsVRsVV $ g_RdsVsy{mshRi xqsLixqsQXR NRPaS yRVs[yLiR aS[xmsyxqsNRPVVsgRiV x$ g][y xqsVxaSzqsQgSLRiV.

C sVsy*LixqsVV sVVso*LRiV ¿[zqss ryRVsVV¿[Rs[ CsWRsVLiVVs s[sV yRVgRis. NSsos dss[RsVWLji RRVsVVsNRPV ysVryLRisVV sLjiLiRVN]sVRVysV.

gRiRVLRiVsoVsV aRPXLigRigjiLji {mshSkaRP*LRiVV $ $ $ xmsLRisVxLixqs xmsLjiyNSyLRi $sVRճsssydLRisVry*sV gRiVLRiVslLi[VsV $ xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLRiV RLji+LisxmsVRV CNRPXztsQNTP $yLRiV sVsLiRsVVF~Lij yL]xqsLigjis $sVVsVV[ sWNRPXztsQs xmsrysLi, xqsLiRzqsLi, sWNSbdPLRi*RssVV xqsLigjis $ gRiRVLRiVxms˳VsoNRPV, sWryuyLigRi ssVryLRisVVsV aRPy˳NTPxmspLRi*NRP sssVR][ sLjiLiRVN]sVRVysVV.

sVLjiRVV dsNRPXztsQs xqsLi][xtsQsVV][ yRLjiLis |msRNRPLiRLRiNRPV sWxmsتsVsVVV.

B xmsLRisVxmssRNSLRisVVsV xqsLiNRPLi, xqsyLRisLRi*xkOSQRORPVgRiV {qsxqsFy xqsWLRixmsNSaRPsVVgSLji xqsLixmspLRi ryRVsVV][ sLRi*zLi, C xmssRNSLRi sLRi*x᪫sVVs sWNRPVgRiWR xqsRsNSaRPsVVsV NRPLi $ bPs NSsVxqsVLiRLkixqszR sLS xmsLRis[VaRP*LRi NSLRiV[aRPsVVs sWNRPVgRiWR ryssVVNRPLi $ xqsVOUPQQ xqsWLRiyLSRV RLixmsRVNRPV yLji LiVVxtsQ\ssVVV $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki sLSصjsVRLixmsRVV kLSRVVLSL][gRi xqsLRi*xqsLixmsR=sVXj xqssVs*RVsV [RVVgSNRP, @s yLjiNTPs sWNRPVsV BxtsQ\ssVgRiV $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLki xqss[VR sLSxmsLRisWRsV FyLjiLiRVsV.

@sVyRsVVsLiR y ][xtsQsVVsV, sVVR ][xtsQsVVsV xqsxXRRVVV RRV][ s][ NRPXRR][ {qs*NRPLjiLi yss xqssLjiLiRVN]LiRVsV.

xmsLkiys[xtsQ                                     N] @sLiRxmsRy˳ aSzqsQ

aRPVNRPxmspLjisV                                        Lji\LRiV zmss=xms

26c6c1972                                 $ g_RdsV sy{mshRi FyR xqsLixqsQXR

                                             NRPaS, LSsVLiT.

 

$ aRPLiNRPLRiNRPXxms

11, xsVsVVs N][s dsj

sVyxqsV c 600033

ROTPQتsWRV $ aRPXLilgi[Lki aSLRiy{mshRisVVyLji RW

sWssVVs sVsRV AyNRP sWxqsxmsNRP

Gzms 1975

$ RLiLRisWRQ s[RFyRxqsssVVV. ($ s[Ryxqs, \sVs, aRPLiNRPLRi˳gRiyR sLRiRsVVV) ALiRyRLRixqszRsVV.

xqsLiFyRNRPVV, xmsNSaRPNRPVV : AyLRi $ RLS xqsWLRi yLSRV (@تsV\ RVWssLji=, RLiLRisVV)

gRiLiRsVVV ]LRiNRPV][V : $sV RLS xqsVOUPQQ ZNP[LSmns $ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV , zqss BLidsLjiLig`i F~|mnsxqsL`i, @تsV\ RVWssLji=, @تsV\sgRiLRisVV RsVyRV 600 xmsoV s LRiV 12c00.

Bj DRsV˳NTP ryzR gRiLiRsVV. kss xqsLiFyjLi xmsNRPLiRV[ xqsLiFyRNRPV\s AyLRi RLS xqsWLRiyLSRVgSLji ˳NTP FyLRisaRPsVV ][RsWs sVgRiVRVsj. $ $FyR s[LiNRP[aRP*LRiV $ N] @sLiR xmsRy˳aSzqsQ gSLRiV xqssVNRPWLji胫s ALiR yRLRisVVV xqsV˳ xqsVLiRLRisVVgS sVss. C gRiLiRsVV sLiRV RLiLRixxqs xqs*LRiWxmssLRiRVsVV, bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLkixqsV, $ yxmnsVFyR NRPXRxqsssVV, bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLRixtsQNRPsVV, RLiLRisWRsVV, xmsRLi NRPXRs[aSxtsQNRPsVV, s[aRP @uRLRi aRPRysWs, $ \sVssVxL<ji NRPXR $sLS s[RFyRxqsssVV $ aRPLiNRPLRi ˳gRisRWFyRNRPXR $sVQxmsoLRixqsVLiRLki s[RFyRrRsVVc ALiR yRLRixqszRsVVgRi sVss.

$ aRPXLilgi[Lki gRiRVLRiV RLRiVV C gRiLiRsVVsV xmsLjibdPLi, yR=xmspLRisVVgS xqsLiFyRNRPVNRPXztsQs xmsaRPLizqsLi, AbdPLRi*jLiyLRiV.

˳gRisLiRV\s \sVssVxL<ji xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiV\s R=˳؃yRVs s[RxmsRsVV][ NRPWTs a][NRPsVV][ xqsVLi¿sV. A a][NRPsVVsRVLiRV sLRiFyRsVV s[RLRiWxmssVgS sVLiRVsV. $sVRLiNRPLRi ˳gRisRWFyRVV LRiLis xmsoLRixqsVLiRLki s[RFyRrRsVVsLiRVsV xmsa][NRPsVVVVNRP sLRiFyRsVV s[RsVLiRLRiWxmssVVgRi sVLiRVsV. NSsos CrRsVVV lLiLiRVsV y sVxR*xmspLRiQ\sVss.

RLiLRisWRQsVV s[RyxqsNRPXRsVV. Bj xmsRQORPQLRi xmsosNRP\sVsj.

C gRiLiRxmsNRPssVV[ xmsNSaRPNRPVV NTPNRP xmsWssVVsV NSLiOTPQLixmsNRP, ˳gRisRQXFy}msORPQ][ xmspsVN]sLji, Bj xmsaRPLiryFyR\sVs sxtsQRVsVV.

C gRiLiRsVVsV xmshjiLis AzqsNRPsVV @ճdxtsQzqsRVsV F~Lij $ bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLki s[aRP*LRiV NRPXxmsNRPV FyRV\ sVLigRixmsLRiLixmsLRisV F~LiRVRVLRis ¿xmssRV胫sV.

($FyRVNRP).

$ R sV LRi sW RQ sVV

($ s[Ryxqs xmsRsVV)

ryLiRxmsoLSLiRLRiRsVV

zmsxmsLjisLRissVV c yRLRisVV

ryzRsyxmsds, D˳RV˳uyxmsds

$ $FyR sLiNRP[aRP*LRiV

Lji\LRiV xqsLixqsQXRxmsLiTRVV, xms˳VR*NRPaS

LSsV}LiRsLRisVV

xqsLiFyRNRPVVc xmsNSaRPNRPVV

$ RLS xqsWLRiyLSRV

zqss BLidsLjiLigRiV F~|mnsxqsLRiV

@<تsV\ saRP*syRVsVV

RLiLRisVV c RsVyRV

1972

 

xms R sV ˳ gRi sVV

1972 xmsRsV sVVR᪫sVV

xqsLRi*ry*sVsVVV xmsNSaRPNRPVs

 

$ s[Ryxqs ˳gRiysVRV

a][ ee ssWxqsV7[ yxqs saSV[e

xmsoLRisLiyRVRxmsRs[Re

[VsR*RW ˳LRiR\xmspLRiM e

xms*][ ؃ssVRV xmskxmsM ee

 

$ R sV LRi sW RQ

s R Fy LS RV s jM

FyLSRVNRPsVM

@s $ RsVLRisWRQxqs ˳gRiys yr VVztsQM ee @sVxtsvms RLiRM ee RxLRiNRPVxLRisVRgRiM $ R=˳[aRP*LRiM $sVR؃ssy᪫sLS[ [sy e JLi dLi ssVM aRPNTPMe bPy[V NUPNRPsV e $R=˳[aRP*LRixmsryRzqsjy*LS xqsNRP˳[gRisWORPQzqsRlLi[ ssWgRiM ee

RVryR=LRi*Li @LigRiVuy˳Li ssVMe xqssVVRsLi RLRids˳LissVMe RLSRLRisVRLi gRi` sVRsW˳LissVM . BRLi ssVM e @ysVNS˳LissVM e s[aSRV R\|qs# NRPsztsQNS˳Li ssVM e NSLRiVsVWLRi򹸅[V NRPLRiRNRPLRixmsXuy˳Li ssVM e RVryR=LRi*Li xXRRWRVssVM exqssVVRsLi bPLRi}qsry*e RLSRLRisVRLi gRi` bP\V _xtsQe BRLissVM NRPsyRV xLie s[aSRV R\|qs#s[RRRWRV _xtsQ e NSLRiVsVWLRi򹸅[V @ryQRV xmns e ˳WLRi骫sxqsV=s L][sV jgRiLiRM e

ysLi

a][ ee xLjixLRisjsVVs W7xqsX` saRP*NRPLRiQYse

RxLRiNRPVxLRisV[ RVLi xmsxmsaRPs xqssM e

jNRPV\ZNP LRiM xmsp[ s[RLkiy e

xqs ˳sRV sVsV }qssM ryLisVWLjiM xqs˳[aRPM ee

ryLisVWLjiLi s[aSLi R=˳xmsdsVaRP*LRisV e

rsVLSLi [sLSLi sRWsVxtsQzqsR[V ee

sVWNRPLiNRPL][yyLi xmsLigRiVLi LixmnsVRV[gjiLjisV e

RV` NRPXFy, RsVxLiss[ xmsLRisWsLiRy᪫ssV ee

Li xmsXjyRs[ gRisLi xqssVLRiRWsV e xLi ANSaSRs[ xmsouy xqssVLRiRWsV e RVLi yRW*Rs[ RWxms sWxmnsWxmsRWsVe LRiLi sQQRs[ kxmsLiRLRi+RWsVe xmsLi @sVXyRs[ @sVXRLi ss[RRWsVe xqsLi xqsLS*Rs[ xqsL][*xmsyLSs xqssVLRiRWsV.

a][ ee aRPVNSLiLRiRLRiLi sxtsvLi aRPbPsLRiLi RRVLRiVLie

xmsxqsssRsLi y[VR=LRi*s|mnsWxmsaSLiR[Ve

JLiNShRisRVLi [sLi gRisNRPQLi RRVLRiVLi e

zmsRLiTsVxLi ss[ xqsLRi*s|mnsWxmsaSLiR[Vee

yxqsLisbPxtsQsFyLRiLi aRP##ZNP[M FRsVNRPxtsQsVe

xmsLSaRPLSRLi ss[ aRPVNRPyRLi RFsjsVee

@uyRaRPxmsoLS؃yLi NRPLSLRiLi R sVsVVssVe

xxqsWRxms[yLRiLi _sV xqsRsdxqsVRsV ee

yryRV sxtsvLRiWFyRV yxqsLRiWFyRV sxtsQs[

ssW \s xsR[V ybPuyRV ssW ssVMee

 

afRNSLiRLixqsWR\M [Vs xqsLigRijRLi NRPsW`

[Vyky Rxsy yryRLi \sVsLi sVsVM ee

@uyRaRPxmsoLS؃ysWRVLi NRPLRiVRVLi

FyLSaRPLRixqs xqsyRLi sLi[ xqsWRLi R aSLi˳ssV ee

aRPVxqsQXxmsoLS؃ysWRVLi NRPLRiVRVLi,

ssWsV ˳gRisy RaRPLiNRPLRiLi [NRPaRPLiNRPLRisV ee

RLRixqsQ*Li sXxtsQLRiW}ms gRiysLiRNSLRiNRPe

@xtsQsVWlLi[M @juysLi @RM Fyz xqsyRsee

ydsVNRPLSRxmsLi xqsLS*˳LRi˳WztsQRsVe

[LiRVsVNRPVLi rsVLi s[RLi R RRVLRiVLiee

kxmsaRPWsVXgkiLiNRP}sVs[RRLRiLi xms˳VsVee

RLiRLi˳sRssV ˳##[ $xqsVRVaSxmssVee

DxmssVsVLi sLijZNP[aRPLi sVyRNRPsVV RsVsVe

$sVRxLRisyRWM xqsLixmsyRVgRiVLRiWs ˳##[ee

sVRLijsxqsVRLi aSLiRLi sbPxtsQ˳gjidsxmssVe

DxmssV[aRP zmsRLRiLi yxmnsVFyRLi ssWsVxLiee

xmsRLiLi sV˳xtsQNRPLSLRiLi xmnsyRVNRPsVe

@[M xqsWsVLi sV˳gRiLi @sxqsWRWRLi ˳##[ee

sLSxqssWs sLi[ xqsxxqssVVdsaRP*LSse

s[aRPxmspNSs sFys RLiLRisyzqssMee

RVryR=LRi*Li xqssVVRsLi RLSRLRisVRLi gRi`e

BRLi ssW s[aSRV R\|qs#NSLRiVsVWLRi򹸅[Ve

ssVbP+yRV ryLiظRV xqsgRiظRV xqssWss[e

xqssLijs[ xqsgRiLigSRV xqssXuyRV ssW ssVMee

xmsp s sV

RRM xmsjsLi xqssVgRiLi y. yyyRVLi y, GNSyRVLi y, sRVRsLiRLi sVVNRPNRP᪱sV. s sVXRV yLRiLi ryRV ryLRi[RLi xmshRidsRVsV. xmshRiysLiRLRiLi, xmsoxqsNRPLi {mslhi[ syRV, RWxmskFyj xmsRLRi+Q OUPQLRiLi, xmnsLi, ry*R*sLi R, ss[R, sVLigRidsLSsLi syRV, xmsouyLiLi xqssVLRi[V`. ryuyLigRiLi xmsxmsR, $ bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLkixmsLSLixqss[VR $ sLSsVWLjiLi y[V`. RRM xmspLRi*s` @LigRiyxqsLi NRPXy* B jgji* sWNRPM B DNSQ* ysa][NSs xmshjiy*, Bs[V a][NSM xmshRidsRWM.

RVryR=LRi*Li xXRRWRV ssVM

xqssVVRsLi bPLRi}qs ry*

RLSRLRisVRLi gRi` bP\V sxtsQ

BRLi ssVM NRPsyRV xLi

s[aSRV R\|qs# s[RRRWRV _xtsQ

NSLRiVsVW LRi򹸅[V @yQRVxmns

˳WLRiV骫sxqsV=sL][sVjgji*sWNRPMee

y sLi

a][ee xLjixLRisjsVVs W7xqsX` saRP*NRPLRiQYs

RxLRiNRPVxLRisV[ RVLi xmsxmsaRPs xqssMe

j*NRPV\ZNP LRiM xmsp[ s[RLkiye

xqs ˳sRV sVsV }qssM ryLisVWLjiM xqs˳[aRPMee

ryLisVWLjiLi s[aSLi R=˳xmsdsVaRP*LRisVee

rsVLSLi [sLSLi sRWsVxtsQzqsR[Vee

sVWNRPLi NRPL][ yyLi xmsLigRiVLi LixmnsVRV[ gjiLjisVe

RVRQXFy RsVxLi ss[ xmsLRisWsLiRy᪫ssVee

Li, xmsXjyRs[ gRiLiRLi xqssVLRiRWsVe xLi ANSaSRs[ xmsouy xqssVLRiRWsVe RVLi yRW*Rs[ RWxmssWxmnsVxmsRWsVe LRiLi sQQRs[ kxmsLi RLRi+RWsV sLi @sVXyRs[ @sVXRLi ss[RRWsVe xqsLi xqsLS*Rs[ xqsL][*xmsyLSs xqssVLRiRWsVe

xmns aRPV

a][ee sVLigRiLi R= ˳[aSRV sVxdsRVgRiVػRs[e

RNRPsLjisVyRV $ sLSظRV sVLigRisVee

a][ee xqs*zqs xms˳M xmsLjiFyRVLiyLie

y[Vs sWlLi[ sV{Li sV{aSM e

g][x[˳M aRPV˳sVxqsV sRLie

[NSxqs=sVryM xqsV[ ˳sLiRVee

NS[ sL<RiRV xmsLRisM xmsXjds xqsxqsaSdse

[a][7RVLi O][Q˳LRiz][xxqs=LiRV sLRiRWM ee

@xmsoyM xmsoxqs=LiRV xmsoxqs=LiRV FM e

@Ryxqs=Ryxqs=LiRV sLiRV aRPLRiyLi aRPRsVe

ARVVLRi*QXjNRPLRiLi {qsQLi rsVLigRixqs sLRissV e

sWRQxmshRisLi }R` xqsLRi*r˳gRiNSLRiNRPsVe

NRPLRiRLRiNRPXRLi, yNSRVLi NRPLRiLi ye

aRPsძsRVsLiy sWsxqsLi y7xmsLSRsVe

szRsVszRLi y xqsLRi*s[VR` ORPQsVxqs*e

bPs bPs NRPLRiV[ $s[aRP xms{qsRee

Ay R*Li gjiLji sVM xmsLjiyM Fy aRPLkiLRiLi gRiXxLie

xmsp[ sxtsQ[Vxms˳[gRiLRiRy sy xqssWjzqsM e

xqsLiyLRiM xmsRWM xmsROTPQsjM ry xqsLS* gjiLRiM e

RVRRLRi NRPL][sV RRRLi aRPLi˳[ RyLSRssVee

NS[Vs yy sVs}qssQ\VLS*e

VyRy y xmsNRPX[M xqs*˳تy`e

NRPL][sV RVRR=NRPLi xmsLRi\|qs#e

xqsybPy[V xqssVLRiRWsVee

xqslLi[*yM xqsV[ ˳ssVe

xqssVxqs xqssLigRis xqssVee

 

R=˳ (ssWs) sLRissVV

a][ee ysWy ssaRPNRP򹸅W RVRVxmsLji

$xqs*LRiNRPVsW s\s

yryLi sRVxqsLixqsj xmsRsV[

sXRLi s[aRPM xqsye

Ry*s[V sgRi, LRixxqssVzms R

RZOP[Q7zqs \¿RsVLRiLi

$yxmnsVQxmsRd sVVssL_

RyLRi+Q*WM xqsLixqsVRM

ysV, [xtsQ, L_j, NSd, NRPsNRPLRi, sNRPLRi, xmssVjs, xqsLRi*˳WRRsVs, sV[ss @sV ]sVjaRPNRPVV ]sVj xmszqsTNRPVLiRVgS \|mssgRi R=˳RVLiRV sLS ysVV ¿[RVVRVLisV. ysVRsV ˳gRisVVs bPsNSsV xqsVLiRLji gRiRV. NRPVT ˳gRisVVs RLiLRi LRixxqssVV gRiRV. Axqs˳N]NRPxmsNRP yxmnsVFyRsVxL<ji, sVLjiVVNRP xmsNRP xmsRLi sVxL<ji sT rRsVV ¿[RVVRVLiTLji.

1. RLiLRi LRixxqs xqs*LRiWxms sLRissVV

a][ee $RNSjsZaP[xtsQRV sQxmnsVRLi

ճxqs*LRiWxmsLi xqsy

ss؃ssVRVLi sV}aRPbPsWM

xqss[VsLi [RRV`

$تsVWsR*xmsRLRi\M sWgRi\LRiOTPQRLi

NRPxqsWLkisVxqsXLi RsVLRisVRLi

rysLi LRixxqsLi sRVMe

$RNRPsVV, RLiLRiRNRPsVV, xqss[VsRNRPsVV, yLiRsRNRPsVV, RxLRiRNRPsVV, LiysVRNRPsVV sVVRgRiV sbPxtsQ\sVs RVLiRsVV][ NRPWLRiTsj, g][Rxqs*LRiWxmssVV][ sVsj, FsxmsVRVsV AsLiRsVRVsVV ؃ssVRVsVV\ssj, bPsosNRPVsV aRPNTPNTPs HNRPsVVsV [jLiRVsj, LigSLRixmso sWlLi[RV RsVV sW][ RWRRVsj, NRPxqsWLji xmspRVTsjRVVsgRiV yyNSaRPryssVVsV LRixxqssVLiRLRiV. (RLiLRi LRixxqssVV)

2. R=˳؃yRVNRP sLRissVV

a][ee xqs RV jss[a][

sXR W7r RsVLRixqs˳ظRWsVe

FyyjsVsVVsW

RVxqs R NRPXxmsRW sV[LRiys˳see

RLiLRixqs˳[ sXRsVV ¿[RVVRV Fys sVVRgRiV sVVsVNRPV RRV][ N][LjiNRP xqsLigjis RWjssLS xqsL][*RQXxtsQsVVgS NSbPLiRVRVLisV.

a][ee NTPRVRysVxxqsRLRiM NTPyxqszqsRM

˳WRryzmsRROTPQQLRi˳RVLi

x}qss ˳sVy

@y˳Li RsVLRiVLi s˳تsxqsVbPLi

FysVV˳Li sxs

W7r sXR jsxqsLixqsj aRPV˳Li

[RWR=˳؃yRVNRPMee

FsRsVNSs FsRsV¿[s N]Li¿sVV sLi sVVsVVs xmsRNTPLi䪫sVVsLi LRiVsso*sV RLjiLi NRPVTFyRsVVsV ˳WRsVVdsVR sVLi xqsLi][xtsQsVV][ @˳RVxxqssVVsV RLjiLi sVgjis lLiLiRV¿[RV[ RsVLRiVsosV @gji bPsV RLjiLi jsxqs˳[ sXRsVV ¿[RVVRVs Axqs˳؃yRVNRPVRV aRPV˳sVV sRVgSNRP.,

a][ee [NSyxRVxqsLS*s RsVLRiVNRPss\M

|mnsWLRixqsLiryLRisVgSs

Ry* ճdLi RRWVM xmsR˳RVxLRiLi

NRPVRLi ysVFyRsVe

DRQX[RLi ssVVZNP[LRiRVssV NRPLS`

RL<RiRVs xmsRRWLRiLi

˳R*zLi xqs˳ظRWLi NRPRV ssLi

RVbP+[ sxqs= FyRW` ee

˳RVLiNRPLRi\sVs xqsLiryLRixqssVVRsVV[ sVVsgjiRVVs sVsLiRLRisV RsVLRiVNRPR*s][ zms @˳RVsV ˳NRPV ˳RVsVVsV [g]RV N]Li¿sVV sLis VRsV NSs Bj sVVNTPNTP sWLRisVs ¿[][ xmsoRV saS*xqssVVN]LRiNRPgjis ¿[][ VN]s xqs˳[ ysVV¿[RVV xmsLRisV bPsoRV sVssV LRiOTPQLiRVgSNRP.

3. $ bPsNSsV xqsVsLkixqsV

a][ee RRM xqs*LRis˳Li [dsLi sRV[[s ˳xqs*LSsV

dsyLRiaRPWNRPsRds*Li {msyLi ˳xqs*RsWxmssWsVee

bPsNRPsWsVxqsVsLki[s LigSLRisVVsLi LRiLigRiVgRij, sVLRixmsos xmsNSbPLiRVsj, ss*LRiysxmso sVVVs xqsWORPQQQQ\sVsj, xmsRsj, xqsWLRisVLiRsVV][ FRgjis [xqsV= gRij, [NRP xmsNSbPLiRV xqsWORPQQsxqsVsoNRPV FNRP\Vsj.

a][ ee }qs*yxmssVRryLi

}qs*yNRPRsgRisV

xqsj* s[yLi RRVL>RiryLi

sV[ xqsWOSQQLi xqs[s ysVee

RsN][LjiNRP xmsNSLRisVVRsLis xmsRsVVsVR[sVsj, Rs BR誫ss LRiWxmssVV NRPLiRVN]sj, lLiLiRV NRPsVV. yVgRiV¿[RVV, xqsss sRVsVV, Fs^Qs xqsssVVV gRij.

a][ee sRsVRs{qsLSLi aSsWLi dsNSs*ysVe

LRiZNP[RVWLRiLRiaRPys[VصRVxmsa][ճysVee

saS\sVs zmsLRiVRVVgRij, ss LRiLigRiVgRij, ds sLRixmso sVVLigRiVLRiVVgRij, sVVyLRisVV, xsoLRiVV, xmsjRWLRiV}ms sVVsWV, FsssVj }ms sVVsWV sVVRgRiVys¿[ sLiNRPLjiLixmsTsj.

a][ee xqsVLRisNRPVsWNRPNTPLiNTPLRisa][ճysVe

RVNRPWsxqs[}msyLi NTPRQxzqsysysVee

xmsNSbPLiRV NTPLkisVLiR sWNRPsVV¿[RsV LRiVgRiLi R*s¿[RsV szqsVsj, xmsVsV RLjiLisj, LRiVsso*][ NRPWTs sVVsVVgRij.

a][ ee @_xmssVgRiVLi rsWLi

sVry*NRPLRiWzms᪱sVe

ROTPQ[LRiQ*NRPLS[s

yORPQsWصRLSLi bPysVee

ry[s gRiV᪫sVVVNRPj, rsVQ\sVsj, sVNTP ry*NRPLRiWxmssVVgRij, NRPVT\sxmso \|ms¿[[ xmssWsV RLjiLisj, sVLigRiLRiWxmssVVgRij.

a][ ee ys[V[LRiQ*NRPLS[s aRPVNRPsR=RLSLi xmsLSsVe

ROSQRMNRPLRixms[s xmsoNRPLRiyLji᪱sVee

FsRsV\sxmso \|ms¿[[ VNRPzmssV RLjiLisj NRPVT \sxmso NTPLiRV¿[[ xmsLjisVLiRV FsNRPVssV xmsVN]sRVVsj.

a][ ee sVysNRPLS[s NRP[ZaP[ xqssVs*ysVe

xsztsQ*ssVNRPV\ iM xqsLixmnsVL<jiRxmsysVVتsVee

GsLi y[VRlLi[aSdsLie xmsoLkiNRPxmsolLi[aRP*LkisV

FsRsV\sxmso NTPLij¿[s sRVsVVs ¿[Lji胫sj. x sxtsvBLiRV¿[ ssVxqsLjiLixmsRVRVsjRVs xmsoLkiNRPxmsolLi[aRP*Lji RVgRiV xmsLRis[VaRP*Lji dssRsVVgS yssVV ¿[RVssV.

 

[sy FyLRis

$ R=˳[aSRV ssVM

$yxmnsVFyRsVVdsssLRiR $RsVlLi[aRP*LRi

sss xqssM

a][ee ss[ aRPsVV骫sVVsWxmsLi xqsVLRigRiVLRiVLi

ss[ gRiyLRiLi

ss[ xmssgRi˳WxtsQLi sVXgRiRLRiLi

ss[ xmsaRPWyLi xmssVe

ss[ xqsWLRiaRPaS䪫szsRVsLi

ss[ sVVNRPVszmsRVLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisVee

xmsLRisWsLiRxqs*LRiWxmsoRV, FyLRi*dxms, [sgRiVLRiVso, xmsxmsLiRsVVsNRPV NSLRi˳WRVRV, xqsLRisVV y˳LRi᪫sVVgS RLjiLisyRV, NRPXxtsQsVXgRisVVsV ¿[[ RLjiLisyRV, sosV xqsLiryLRiLiRsVVsVLiT sTzmsLi LRiOTPQLiRVyRV, xqsWLRiRLiygRiVsV s[RsVVVgS RLjiLisyRV, sxtsvsosNRPV zmsRV\sVsyRV, ˳NRPVNSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVVsV NRPgjiLiRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ ee ss[ xqsLRi*gRij*LRisVRVLi ss[ NRPLjiR*gRiLRiLi

ss[ [sbPتsVLi aRPbPs˳Li ss[ xlLi[LRi*˳sVe

ss[ xmsLRi*RNRPsNSLRisxmsoxtsQLi ss[ xmsLRiLi sRVLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPVLRisVee

[NRPsVVsLiRLiRsV sxLjiLiRV yxmsNRPVRV, ry [syRV, gRiRLRisVVsV RLjiLisyRV, [sZaP[xtsvRV RLiRVssLi NSLigRiyRV sxtsvsosNRPV zmsRVVRV, FyLRi*s xqsgRisVV aRPLkiLRisVVs RLjiLis RVLRiyLkiaRP*LRiVRV, xmsLRixqs*LRiWxmsoRV, ؃sxqs*LRiWxmsoRV ˳NRPV NSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRV yRV, xqsVsVVsV NRPgjiRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRV RVysV.

a][ee ss[ [sVxqs˳xmsLi sxmsLi

ss[7LRiRyxmsxLi.

ss[sLRisWj˳WRsVsaRPLi

ss[ sVR*LizqsssVe

ss[ sRsVlgi[szmsRVNRPLRiLi ss[7aSyNRPXLi

ss[˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisV ee

RsVLRi xqs˳صjxms, sLS, dsLRi˳RLRiWxmssVVs xqsWLRiVs RLiRsVVsV [g]syRV, FyxmsLRizRVRV xqssVxqs [NRPsVVsNRPV sVVRyRV, RORPQRVsVVsV R*LixqssVV ¿[zqssyRV, FyLRi* ZNPxmsoRV {mss gRiVgRi[RVV yRV, sVNTP aSLiR\sVs RWNSLRisVV gRiyRV, ˳NRPV NSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVVsV gRigjiLiRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ ee ss[ ˳WLRiRsVsVVORPQsbPLi

ss[ RLiVWysLi

ss[ \ZaPaRPLSxqssLi xmnsgRiVLi ss[ 7RWLRiNRPsVe

ss[ xmsRryLRijLi xmsoLRixLRiLi ss[ sV\˳LRisLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisVee

˳WsVs LRiRsVVgRisV, sxtsvsosV ᪫sVVgRisV, s[RsVVsV gRiV᪫sVVVgRisV, xmsLRi*RsVVsV sVgRisV, AjZaP[xtsvso syRVgRisV, xqssVVRsVV ssVVF~jgRisV, xsV ryLRijgRisV, [zqsN]s sV ˳RVLiNRPLRiV\ xmsoLSxqsVLRixqsLiLRisVV [zqssyRV, ˳NRPVNSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVVsRVyRV sgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee ss[ xms誫sVVتsVVLi RVsLi

ss[ [ORPQLi

ss[ [sVNRPsRLi xqsVsVVNRPVLi

ss[7gRiݵRLRisVe

ss[ sWLRixLRiLi xmsosLi

ss[7xtsQsVWLSQRNRPLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisVee

ysVLRixmsoso*sLi HRV sVVsVVVgRiyRV, sVWRV s[RsVVV gRiyRV, FnysVVs NRPsV gRiyRV, ANSaRPsVV VgSgRiyRV, sVLi NTPLkisVV gRi yRV, RLiRVs, gRiLigRisV RLjiLisyRV, sVsRVs ˳xqssVV ¿[zqssyRV sVjRVLiRV sVWRV s˳W lLi[sV RLjiLis yRV, FsssVj sVWLRiVVgS sVs yRV, ˳NRPV NSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVV sRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee ss[ LSRxmsLRi*ygRisRVLi ss[ xqsVLSkaRP*LRiLi

ss[ sLRiV᪫sVxmss[VRVsVsVLi

ss[ RVsV[*ztsQ᪱sVe

ss[ NRPVLSNRPVRLRiLi ss[ xqsxryssLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisVee

\ZNPxqs xmsLRi*RbPLRisVVs sszqsLiRVyRV, [s [soRV, gRiVؼdRVRV, zqsN]s aRPNRPsVV NSsyRV, xqs*RQ\sVsyRV, sVXRVsosV LiVVLisyRV, xqsLRiLSكsV NRPVLiRsVVgS RLjiLisyRV, s[LiVV sVVsVVVgRi yRV, ˳NRPV NSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVV sRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ ee ss[7ssLRisxmsNSaRPsVgRiVLi ss[7sNRPrysNRPLi

ss[ xmsR sxtsvgRiLRi*NRPVaRPLi

ss[ RRWsWsjsVe

ss[ R=˳dsVaRP*LRiLi xqsVLRisVRLi

ss[ sVWLSQRNRPLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisVee

@s[NRPxqsWLRiV xmsNSaRPsVV gRiyRV, xqsR*LRixqssW gRiV᪫sVVV [syRV, @LiRNSxqsVLRiVs xqsLixLjiLisyRV, LigRiLRiWxmssVVVVNRP @RLiRsVVsV NRPsVg]sV[ x sxtsvsoVVNRP gRiLRi*sVVsV [g]syRV, RRW xqssVVRVRV R=˳[aRP*LRiVRV [sR¿[ F~gRiRTsyRV, x sxtsv sV}aRP*LRi xqs*LRiWxmsoRV, ˳NRPV NSaRPRVVRV, N][Ljis sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVV sRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee ss[ 7xmsxqsQXbPORPQNRPLi sxtsQxLRiLi

ss[ sVXRLi RWLRiLi

ss[ sxmss\lLi xqsV=xmspRxmsRLi

ss[ ˳[yLRiNRPsVe

ss[ RLRisVVLRiRLi aRPVsVRLi

ss[ gRiVLRiWLi gRiVLRiVLi

ss[ ˳NRPyaRPRVLi R sLRiRLi

ss[ bPsLi aRPLRisVee

@xmsryLRiNRPVs NSNTPLiR @gRi]NTP䃫syRV, sxtsQsVVsV [g]VyRV, ˳NRPVsV xqsVLixms[RVVyRV, LRiV\ss xqssVWxsVVsV RLjiLisyRV, sVWRVs[sVLij \ss xqssVWxsVVsV RLjiLisyRV, sVWRV s[sVLij xZaP[xtsv¿[ gRiVgS xmspLixmsTs FyRsVVV gRiyRV, xqsLiryLRisVVsVLiT RLjiLixms[RVVyRV, RLRisVV sVVRgRiV xmsoLRiVuyLRisVV sRVyRV, s[RsVV¿[ F~gRiRxmsTsyRV, gRiVLRiVsoNRPV gRiVLRiVso, ˳NRPV NSaRPRVVRV, sLRisVV sRVyRV, xqsVsVV sRVyRVsgRiV bPsos ssVxqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee aSLRiWLizmnsVsVxL<ji sLRiRLi

xqsLiNUPLRi򹸅[VR*ss

rRLi RRRysVճLRiRV

aRP+sVVLi xqs˳ظRWMxmssVe

xqsyxqsV xmsyxqsLRiLi xqsVsRV][

RLSjxqsR=sVRM

[*}sVNRPصRLRixqs xqs[

˳Wy* xqs R NUPRee

FssRV yxmnsVFyR sVxL<ji LRiLis C sLiRs rRsVVsV sRsVV xmshjiLiRV[. ks[s ysVsVV][ xmsjssVV xqsLiy NSsVVRVLiRV sRVsVsVVgS xqs˳xmssgRiWLji x[sVsVV ¿[RVV[ yRV RLRisVV sVVRgRiV sVLi xqsLixmsRsV F~Lij BNRPR RLiRZaP[LRiVsNRPV sVLi\V RWsLijLiRVsV.

B $yxmnsVFyRsVVdsssLRiRM $RsVlLi[aRP*LRi

sssxqssM

xqssWxmsM

$ yxmnsVFyRsVxL<ji xmsR $ bPsNSsV

xqsVsLRixtsQNRPsV

a][ ee xmsoLkiNRPxmsoLRisVRyzqsdsLi

sXRLSxqsxRLRiyLji᪱sVe

@jLSRsRWLi js[ js[

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

xmsoLiRLkiNRPxmsoLRisVVs sszqsLiRVsj, sLS RLRixmsRVV, xmsLRi*RLS NRPVsWlLiRVVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis xmsjssVV xqsLjiLi¿RsV.

a][ee x sxtsvsVVLSsVlLi[TyLi

xxmsRaRPVNRPsR=a][ճysVe

x[RVNRP˳؃syRLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

x, sxtsvso sVVRgRiV [sR¿[ xqsVLixmsTsj, xmsRsVVsLi xsos NRPzms¿[ @LiNRPLjiLixmsTsj, NRPVsWLRiry*sV, gRi؃ssVRV NRPVsWLRiVVgS gRijRVVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis R¿RsV.

a][ee #9; s[RbdPL<RissVyRQ\s˳yLi

yyLRixmnsysRRLSsVe

yxqsxqsWsVsVVNRPyxmsryLjiyLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

DxmssxtsQRV¿[ F~gRiRTs \s˳ssVVgRij, N][Ljis N][lLi xmnssVV sRVRVLiyxqsNTPgRij, xqsWRVRV sVVRgRiV yxmsxqsV¿[ xmspLixmsTsjRVVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis RRVRVysV.

a][ee jsLRiRsV˳WxtsQتsVLSLi

[sLSsVzصjxqsLisXysVe

ysyLjixqsxLi RRWsjLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

jsQ\sVs LRiR sV ˳WxtsQLiLRisVVV RLjiLisj, aRPd[s sVVRgRiVyLji¿[ }qssLixmsRVsj, sxtsvso ][VVso RRW xqssVVRVLSVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis RRVRVysV.

a][ee uRaSLRixmsLRi[sysVVsWLi

xmssRWR鮪s[ORPQتsVe

FyLjiػRRLRiVsVWsVFyLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

xmsRVyLRiV AsLRi᪫sVV[sVLiRV xmsLRi[sR, DsV, sVsRxqssVWxsVVsNRPV NSLRi\sVs NRPsVVgRij, FyLjiػR sXORPQsVV sVVR sVLiRxmssVVgRijRVVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis xqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ ee saRP*WssVsVتsVsVRsWLi

ygji*xqsxmnsyLi sRORPQتsV

yLjisyxxqsRXaSNSsVLSLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

xmsxmsLiRsVVsNRPV NSLRi˳WRVLSV, sLRi\sVsj, xqsL][*RQ\sVsj, DRsVyNRPV xmnssVVsRV胫sj. sZaP[xtsQsVVgS VNRPVsj s[VxmnsVsVVsLi sVVLigRiVLRiV gRijRVVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis xqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee ssZNP[aRPssVyRQ\s˳yLi

ysVsVsQxmsNRPXRV=xmsysVe

yaRP{sxmsRyLi s[aRP*LkiLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVe

sLijZNP[aRP*LRiVs¿[ F~gRiRTs \s˳ssVVgRij, ysV. sVLiR, xmssVV ¿[RVVyLRiNRPV xqsVsVV sRV胫sj, yaRPsVV [s rys\sVs sWORPQsVV sRV胫sj, s[aRP*LjiRVgRiV bPs NSsVxqsVLiRLjis xqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee rsVxqsWLRixR˳Vgji*[RyLi

xqsLRi*sWxsNRPLkiLixqsVkTysVe

xqssLRixmsLRisWRryLi

sRWsV bPsNSsVxqsVsLkisVee

RLiRxqsWLSgRiVV sVWRV s[RsVVVgSgRij, @LiRLRisV sWzLixms[RVVsj, xmsLiTRV¿[ F~gRiRTsj, RLSLRiNSsVsVV][ NRPWR sWORPQxqsVsVV sRV胫sjRVVsgRiV bPsNSsVxqsVLiRLjis xqsLjiLiRVRVysV.

a][ee xmsoLkiNRPRLRiL<ji NRPXRLi

rR s[VRRxmnsVxLi xmshRis [Ve

xmsoLkiNRPxmsoLRiyLiVVNSsVNS

RVRdxtsQsVLi sV}aRP*Lkiee

yxmnsVFyRsVxL<ji¿[ [RVTsj, FyxmssVVsV [g]VsjRVVsgRiV CrRsVV ssLRiV RRVsoRVL][ yLjiNTP xmsoLiRLkiNRPxmsoLRiyLiVVNRP, sV}aRP*LjiRVVsgRiV gRiRLi N][lLi ss xqsgRiVsV.

 

 

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